# TOPOGRAPHY

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

At the end of the classes, the student who attended regularly lectures and exercices:

- knows about measurement errors and their effect on computations;

- knows how to roughly evaluate the order of magnitude of the results based on simple calculations;

- knows how to choose the best

combination of instruments and surveying techniques.

- knows how to plan and execute a survey, adjust the observations and analyse

the results.

- knows how to apply his knowledge and undestanding by solving

problems that refer to engineering practice.

- experienced his ability to carry out a practical survey with total station, with the adjustment of a small network, working in a team;

- experienced teamwork in a field survey as well as in numerical exercices in the design of a control network, including the ability to prepare a written report on both activities.

The student learns about measurement errors and their effect on

conputations; knows how to roughly evaluate the order of magnitude of

the results based on simple calculations; knows how to choose the best

combination of instruments and surveying techniques. On the basis of

fundamental concepts of surveying and cartography the student knows

how to plan and execute the survey, adjust the observations and analyse

the results.

The student applies his knowledge and undestanding by solving

exercices, in the classroom or at home, that refer to engineering practice.Moreover, grouped in teams, students carry out a practical survey with

total station, including the adjustment of a small network.

In the lectures it is stressed a problematic attitude towards the limits and

validity of methods and approximations in the mathematical and

statistical models; the exercices do not merely repeat the same case, but

demand of the student a critical review of his knowledge.

Teamwork in the surveys exercices with total station help students to

make and motivate choices, exchange opinions, draw conclusions. A

written report is also required to illustrate the aim and the results of the

survey.

## Prerequisites

Calculus and geometry: derivatives, integrals, linearization of functions,

solution of non linear equations systems, matrix algebra.

Calculus and geometry: derivatives, integrals, linearization of functions,

solution of non linear equations systems, matrix algebra.

## Course contents summary

Surveys determine the position of points w.r.t. the Earth surface in a geodetic datum

with controlled accuracy. Surveys are needed to produce technical maps,

control displacements and deformation of large structures, vertical and

horizontal terrain movements, in road construction.

Geodesy and Reference systems.

Surveying basic concepts. Geoid and Ellipsoid. Reference systems,

coordinate systems, geodetic datum. Coordinate transformation and

datum transformation. Elements of geodesy.

Cartography

Classification of map projections. Gauss projection and its use in geodetic

computations. UTM projection. Map production in Italy at different map

scales. Cadastral maps.

Error theory and statistical analysis of data.

Errors. Probability and random variables. Error propagation law. Error

ellipse. Inference: parametric tests and confidence interval. Least

squares adjustment of observations. Tests on standardized residuals and

significance of parameters. Measurement reliability.

Surveying instruments and surveying methods.

Total stations, levels; measurement of angles, distances, height

differences.

Geodetic and topographic networks.

Observation equations of horizontal and height networks. Network

simulation and adjustment. Georeferencing and co-registration of

networks.

GPS.

System description. Pseudo-range and phase observations. Systematic

errors and modeling techniques. Accuracy of absolute, relative and

differential positioning in kinematic and static surveys. Network design.

ITRF and ETRF frames and trasformation to national datum and

orthometric heights. Networks of GPS permanent stations.

Application of Surveying to civil engineering

Use of maps in engineering projects. Road construction and building

construction surveys. Deformation and displacement monitoring in

building, bridges; landslides displacement control

Surveys determine the position of points w.r.t. the Earth surface in a geodetic datum

with controlled accuracy. Surveys are needed to produce technical maps,

control displacements and deformation of large structures, vertical and

horizontal terrain movements, in road construction.

Geodesy and Reference systems.

Surveying basic concepts. Geoid and Ellipsoid. Reference systems,

coordinate systems, geodetic datum. Coordinate transformation and

datum transformation. Elements of geodesy.

Cartography

Classification of map projections. Gauss projection and its use in geodetic

computations. UTM projection. Map production in Italy at different map

scales. Cadastral maps.

Error theory and statistical analysis of data.

Errors. Probability and random variables. Error propagation law. Error

ellipse. Inference: parametric tests and confidence interval. Least

squares adjustment of observations. Tests on standardized residuals and

significance of parameters. Measurement reliability.

Surveying instruments and surveying methods.

Total stations, levels; measurement of angles, distances, height

differences.

Geodetic and topographic networks.

Observation equations of horizontal and height networks. Network

simulation and adjustment. Georeferencing and co-registration of

networks.

GPS.

System description. Pseudo-range and phase observations. Systematic

errors and modeling techniques. Accuracy of absolute, relative and

differential positioning in kinematic and static surveys. Network design.

ITRF and ETRF frames and trasformation to national datum and

orthometric heights. Networks of GPS permanent stations.

Application of Surveying to civil engineering

Use of maps in engineering projects. Road construction and building

construction surveys. Deformation and displacement monitoring in

building, bridges; landslides displacement control

## Recommended readings

Recommended texbooks

B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins – Available in the

Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura.

Global positioning system : theory and practice

Alfred Leick - GPS satellite surveying

Course material (slides of the lectures, lecture notes on statistical data

analysis, exercices, etc.) can be found in TOPOGRAFIA, available online on the Uni e-learning platform. Registration

mandatory.

Recommended texbooks

B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins – Available in the

Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura.

Global positioning system : theory and practice

Alfred Leick - GPS satellite surveying

Course material (slides of the lectures, lecture notes on statistical data

analysis, exercices, etc.) in TOPOGRAFIA at http://lea.unipr.it. Registration

mandatory.

## Teaching methods

Lectures, numerical exercises, field surveys, execution of a practical

surveying project

Lectures, numerical exercises, field surveys, execution of a practical

surveying project

## Assessment methods and criteria

The examination can be either by solving numerical exercises and

answering to written questions along the semester or by a oral examination with numerical exercices and discussion at

the end of the semester.

The written questions are in the form of “True or False” questions; they aim to

evaluate the knowledge base and count for about 20% of the total score.

Solving the exercices highlights knowledge, understanding and ability to

apply them; they count for about 60% of the score. Homework and

teamwork in the field survey highlight ability to apply knowledge and

understanding as well as communication skills; they each count for about 10%

of the score.

The oral examination starts with a simple exercise with computations;

passing this test is a prerequisite to continue the examination and

amounts to about 10% of the score. The questions are about theoretical,

methodological and practical aspect of surveys; each contribute to the

score by about 30%.

The examination can be either by solving numerical exercises and

answering to written questions along the semester or by a discussion at

the end of the semester.

The written questions are in the form of “True or False” questions; aim to

evaluate the knowledge base and count for about 20% of the total score.

Solving the exercices highlights knowledge, understanding and ability to

apply them; they count for about 70% of the score. Homework and

teamwork in the field survey highlight ability to apply knowledge and

understanding as well as communication skills; they count for about 10%

of the score.

The oral examination starts with a simple exercise with computations;

passing this test is a prerequisite to continue the examination and

amounts to about 10% of the score. The questions are about theoretical,

methodological and practical aspect of surveys; each contribute to the

score by about 30%.