# GENERAL PHYSICS 1 (UNIT 1)

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course aims to provide the student with the basic notions of classical mechanics. These notions, also illustrated by a large number of examples, will allow him to set up and solve simple problems and to understand some of the fundamental properties of matter derived from the laws studied.

In particular

Knowledge and understanding

- to know and understand the terminology used in the field of point mechanics, material point systems, rigid bodies, waves

- knowledge of fundamental laws and natural principles governing mechanics.

- knowledge of strategies to find specific solutions to simple kinematic and dynamic problems.

Applying knowledge and understanding

- Resolutions of simple problems both in analytical and numerical terms relating to the mechanics of point particles and extended bodies, and the thermodynamic transformations.

Communication skills

- development of a correct, rigorous and comprehensible scientific language that allows to expose clearly the knowledge and the strategies learned during the course.

Making judgments

- Ability to critically evaluate the results obtained in dealing with problems.

- Ability to make simple appropriate observations and to give possible descriptions in concrete situations close to those being dealt with in the course

Learning Skills

- the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to solve original problems in mechanics

The objective of the course is the basic knowledge and understanding of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics. Students will also learn how to solve simple problems.

## Prerequisites

The course is calculus based.

The course of Mathematical Analysis should be previously attended.

In particular

knowledge of basic trigonometry, equations and systems of first and second order, exponentials and logarithmic functions, functions of real variable, limits, derivates and integrals.

A lesson on the basics in vector calculus will be presented in a lesson at the beginning of the course.

The course is calculus based.

The course of Mathematical Analysis should be previously attended.

## Course contents summary

Mechanics:

Physical quantities

Vectors

Kinematics of point particles.

Dynamics of point particles

Work and energy

Momentum

Dynamics of rotational motion

Rotation of rigid bodies

Equilibrium

Gravitation

Fluid mechanics

Mechanical waves

Mechanics

Introduction, physical quantities, their measure, errors; vector quantities.

Kinematics and dynamics, mass, force, laws of motion.

Mechanics of point particles, equations of motion, linear momentum, collisions.

Work and energy, kinetic and potential energy, conservation of mechanical energy.

Outline of rigid-body mechanics, kinematics, moment of inertia, angular momentum, torque, statics and dynamics, rolling and rotations, conservation of energy, linear momentum and angular momentum.

Newton's law of gravity, gravitational and inertial mass, potential energy.

Mechanical waves: wave motion, superposition and interference, waves on strings, linear wave equation, sound waves, standing waves.

## Course contents

Physical quantities. Standard and units, unit consistency; Errors, significant figures

Vectors: Scalars and Vectors, Vectors Operation, Overlapping Principle, Derivative of a Vector

Particle point kinematics. Vectors position, displacement, velocity and acceleration; Radial and tangential acceleration; Classification of motions: motions; Motions in 1D (constant speed, constant acceleration, harmonic oscillations), motions in two dimensions (projectile motion, motion in a circle); Reference systems.

Particle Point Dynamics. Newton's laws; weight, normal forces and frictional forces, elastic force; Dynamics of circular motion; Inertial and non-inertial reference systems.

Energy and work. The work of a force, the power; Examples of work of constant and varying forces; Conservative forces and potential energy; kinetic energy; work-energy theorem; Conservation of mechanical energy.

Momentum and impulse; particle systems; momentum conservation; center of mass, the motion of the mass center; collisions.

Dynamics of rotational motion of a particle. Torque, Angular momentum, Newton's second law, angular momentum theorem, kinetic energy of a rotating material point, generalizations to particle systems.

Rigid Body Dynamics. Rigid bodies; Translational motion of a rigid body, position of the center of mass; Rotational motion of a rigid body around a fixed axis; Moment of inertia and parallel axis theorem; Rotational kinetic energy and work; rolling without sliding motions, the conservation of the angular momentum.

Equilibrium of a rigid body. Solving rigid body equilibrium problems.

Newton's law of gravitation. Gravitational force and gravitational field; The gravitational potential energy; The Kepler’s laws

Fluid mechanics. Pressure and Density, Stevin's Law, Buoyancy, Bernoulli's equation.

Mechanical waves: types of mechanical waves, superposition and wave interference, waves on a strings, mathematical description of a wave, standing waves on a string, beats.

## Recommended readings

Suggested textbooks

Gettys - Fisica 1 - McGraw Hill Quinta Edizione

Walker - Halliday-Resnick-Fondamenti di Fisica - CEA Settima Edizione (vol. primo - Meccanica - Termologia)

oppure

Halliday-Resnick-Krane - Fisica 1 - CEA Quinta edizione

Focardi-Massa-Uguzzoni - Fisica Generale - CEA Vol. Meccanica/Termodinamica e fluidi

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Elementi di Fisica Meccanica Termodinamica - Edises Seconda Edizione

or

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Fisica Vol.1 - Edises

Any other text for University Physics (for Degree in Engineering or Physics) can also be considered valid for the purpose of preparation. If in doubt ask the teacher.

Suggested textbooks

Gettys - Fisica 1 - McGraw Hill Quinta Edizione

Walker - Halliday-Resnick-Fondamenti di Fisica - CEA Settima Edizione(vol. primo - Meccanica - Termologia)

oppure

Halliday-Resnick-Krane - Fisica 1 - CEA Quinta edizione

Focardi-Massa-Uguzzoni - Fisica Generale - CEA Vol. Meccanica/Termodinamica e fluidi

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Elementi di Fisica Meccanica Termodinamica - Edises Seconda Edizione

or

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Fisica Vol.1 - Edises

## Teaching methods

Lectures are highly recommended. Many examples will be discussed during the course. Exercise sessions will be held during the course.

Lectures are highly recommended. Many examples will be discussed during the course. Exercise sessions will be held during the course.

## Assessment methods and criteria

Only one examination for unit 1 and 2.

Two written partial tests of which the first one during the year (duration 1h20 ') or written test on the whole program alternatively (duration 2h).

Written tests will present both numerical or literal exercises and theoretical questions.

With a total score above 18/30 you will have the opportunity to immediately accept the proposed mark (oral exam at the discretion of the student who intends to improve the mark).

With a lower grade in the 18/30 written exam, but no less than 12/30, the student will be provisionally admitted to the oral test. Provisional admission means that after the written test is assessed, despite the non-achievement of the minimum requirements for verbalization, it is also possible to access the oral examination: the teacher will check the student's actual preparation through the usual questions about "Theory" as well as possibly, if deemed necessary, with the support of short written exercises (it is clear that without having the comfort of the written test the student MUST necessarily achieve the minimum proficiency level).

Only one examination for unit 1 and 2. An intermediate and a final written test. An oral exam is compulsory only for test results below a certain threshold (details on the specific course web page)