PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY I
Learning outcomes of the course unit
This course will be mainly focused on the morphologic and molecular techniques applied to the study of pathologic cells and tissues, crucial to provide the pathologist with the best-quality cyto-histologic samples, equipped with all the additional informations necessary to reach the most accurate diagnosis.
This course will lead the students to develop knowledge and understanding of the basic principles for the correct handling and processing of histologic and cytologic samples. Moreover, thorough knowledge and understanding of the basis of the morphologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular biology techniques ancillary to pathologic diagnosis will be reached. Training periods in the histopathology laboratories will allow the students to practically apply the acquired theoretical knowledge.
The students will also acquire:
- knowledge of the specific measures for safety and prevention, that will make them able to work in the Pathologic Anatomy laboratories in a mindful way, without causing damage to themselves, to collegues and to the environment;
- the ability to analize in a critical way all the phases of the technical work, reaching a judgement-making capacity that will allow them to contribute to identify and solve possible technical troubles in the laboratory procedures;
- communication skills that will be of paramount importance to estabilish cooperation with collegues and with biologist and pathologists, in order to discuss technical results and propose critical evaluation of the procedures falling within their competence. This will help to improve the quality of the technical work carried out in the pathology laboratory, eventually contributing to improve the final product, i.e. the cyto-histopathologic diagnosis;
- learning skills that will allow them to self-sufficiently follow the evolution of the technological and instrumental progress in the pathology field, in order to understand and, in case, contribute to the introduction of new technical advances. This may be especially relevant for the molecular biology techniques that are becoming more and more essential in the field of oncologic diagnosis and therapy.
Knowledge of the basis of histology and having passed all the first year's exams
Course contents summary
Being aware of the practical actions performed in an atomic pathology laboratory.
Profs. D’Adda and Lagrasta
Organization, software management system and instrumentation of the histopathology laboratory
Types of histologic samples: needle biopsies, endoscopic and surgical biopsies, surgical specimens
Handling of histologic samples: acceptance, gross examination, surgical margins staining, sampling
Chemical and physical fixation of tissues
Preparation of histological specimens: processing, paraffin embedding and sectioning
Intraoperative frozen sections examination
Security and damage prevention measures in Pathologic Anatomy
Routine (haematoxylin-eosin), histomorphologic and histochemical stains
Immunohistochemistry: principles and applications to histopathologic diagnosis
Diagnostic cytology: exfoliative (PAP test), liquid, needle aspiration cytology
Preparation of cytological specimens: smear, thin layer, cytocentrifugation; fixation, staining
Grading and staging of a tumor. Diagnostic citology applied to lung, bladder, and thyroid pathology
Muscle biopsy: recommendations, execution, processing, sectioning, relevant stains.
Special stains in histopatology: practical applications
Immunohistochemistry: practical applications and problems occuring during the lab execution.
Theoretical bases and diagnostic techniques of anatomic pathology relevant to: urinary system, male genital apparatus, and head and neck district.
AA.VV. Anatomia Patologica: le basi. A cura di L. Ruco, A. Scarpa. UTET Scienze Mediche, Torino, 2007
Robbins Basic Pathology, 10th Edition
Rubin's Pathology, 7e Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine
Cardillo Maria Rosaria "Nozioni di tecniche diagnostiche di Anatomia Patologica" Antonio Delfino Editore
PDF files of the Power Point slides presented during the course, published online on the web site http://elly.medicina.unipr.it (at the option of the teacher)
The course will be based on frontal teaching: attendance to at least 70% of the classes will be mandatory.
Assessment methods and criteria
Achievement of learning outcomes will be verified by means of a final oral exam, whose score will be expressed in thirtieth; the minimal threshold to pass the exam will be 18/30, the best mark will be represented by 30/30 “cum laude”. By means of a series of questions touching a wide variety of topics treated during the course, the global level of knowledge and understanding of the theoretical and practical subjects, as well as the ability to logically think and connect related topics, will be verified.