ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE SYSTEM
Learning outcomes of the course unit
This course covers electrochemical energy storage (batteries) systems, providing knowledge of the current state of the art, principles of operations and modeling, and system integration. The main focus of this course is on batteries for automotive application, although use of such technologies in the context of stationary power generations will be described as well.
Students will acquire:
1. Knowledge of the basic principles of electrochemistry, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer and their application to batteries.
2. Understanding of the types of batteries today in use for automotive systems, together with their operating principles, characteristics and performance metrics.
3. Ability to apply modeling principles to characterize the voltage/thermal response of battery cells.
4. Understanding of simple principle of control and estimation applied to energy storage systems for electrified vehicles.
Course contents summary
Introduction to energy storage systems for automotive applications.
Principles of applied electrochemistry, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer
Experimental methods for Lithium ion cells characterization
Modeling of Lithium ion cells
Integration of Lithium ion cells in battery packs
Overview of Battery Management Systems (BMS) and Thermal Management Systems (TMS)
Degradation processes in Lithium ion cells
Introduction to energy storage systems for automotive applications, notation and common terminology.
History and overview of energy storage technologies for automotive applications.
Introduction to Lithium ion cells: basic operating principles, properties of electrode materials, state of the art.
Elements of applied electrochemistry, thermodynamics of electrochemical cells, open-circuit potential. Chemical kinetics, Arrhenius law, Butler-Volmer equation, Nernst-Planck equation.
Transport phenomena in Lithium ion cells: Fick’s law and mass transfer in solid and liquid phase; energy balance for electrochemical systems and heat diffusion equation.
Experimental characterization methods and instrumentation; electrochemical analysis (potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy); system-level testing procedures, USABC protocols for performance and life testing.
Modeling of electrochemical energy storage systems, classification of Lithium ion cell models. Heuristic modeling methods: Equivalent Circuit Model for Li-ion batteries, parameter identification, examples.
Physics-based modeling methods: Porous Electrode Theory (DFN Model), Single Particle Model, Extended Single Particle Model.
Modeling of electrochemical energy storage systems, energy balance of Li-ion cell, heat generation and thermal dynamics.
Approximation methods for physics-based electrochemical models, overview of model order reduction techniques.
Introduction to energy storage systems, integration, packaging, control/monitoring challenges. Principles of operation of Battery Management Systems (BMS); charge balancing strategies.
Overview of Thermal Management Systems (TMS), active vs. passive solutions. Introduction to State of Charge (SOC) estimation, examples.
Introduction to estimation and observer design theory, Luenberger observer, examples.
Introduction to estimation and observer design theory, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Application to SOC estimation.
Introduction to battery life prediction framework: State of health (SOH), life assessment methods. Heuristic methods for life estimation.
Degradation processes in Lithium ion cells: description of physical phenomena. Modeling performance degradation from first principles.
Extensive notes (.pdf) will be provided ahead of each lecture by the Instructor. Books that might be useful for consultation:
D. Linden, T. Reddy, “Handbook of Batteries (4th Edition)”, McGraw-Hill, 2010
C. Rahn, C.Y. Wang, “Battery Systems Engineering (1st Edition)”, Wiley, 2013
In-class lectures. Computer laboratory sessions (3) will be arranged during the course to introduce the use of Matlab/Simulink and application to selected course topics.
Assessment methods and criteria
There will be a set of Homework assignments (4) distributed during the course, each due after 2 weeks. A final project will be assigned at the end of the course. The course evaluation will be based solely on the homework assignments (collected throughout the course) and the final course project (submitted within 2 weeks after the end of the course). There will be no exam.
Attendance is highly recommended. The course evaluation will be based solely on the homework assignments (collected throughout the course) and the final course project (submitted within 2 weeks after the end of the course). There will be no exam