IMMUNOLOGY AND GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge
and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human
diseases, etio-pathogenesis of tumours and the mechanisms of
immunological response (innate and adaptive). Great emphasis will be
given to molecular pathology, oncology and immunology in order to allow
the student to apply the knowledge gained to the future clinical activity.
Course contents summary
General Pathology and Immunology. Environmental and genetic etiology.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Molecular and cellular oncology. Blood physiopathology and
hematopoiesis. Innate and acquired Immunology. Immunological
t o l e r a n c e a n d a u t o i m m u n e d i s e a s e s . T r a n s p l a n t a t i o n ,
Immunodeficiencies and Hypersensitivity. Clinical and diagnostic
Health and homeostasis, homeostasis alterations. Proliferation, survival
and cell death. Cell differentiation. The molecular mechanisms of
mutations and DNA repair. Environmental Pathology:
physical, chemical and biological causes of disease.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Blood physiopathology: anemias, leucocytes
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia,
hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant
neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer.
Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and
oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc
genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis.
Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical
carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals.
Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic
predisposition to cancer. Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens.
The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes
and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC).
Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response.
The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1,
TH2, TH17, TC lymphocytes, T suppressors, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Congenital and
acquired Immunodeficiencies. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis
of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
Mechanisms of hypersensitivity reactions, immediate, antibody-mediated,
immunecomplex-mediated and cell mediated.
Immunoemathology :ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus
(Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII
Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai “Immunologia cellulare e molecolare” 7 ed.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through
lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the
student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through a multiple-choise written test followed by an oral examination.
Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test
knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline,
and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in