CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND ..
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is aimed at:
- provide in-depth knowledges on the most important chemical processes
- provide basic knowledges on chemical process plants: design, management, safety
- provide adequate knowledge on the economic evaluation of a chemical process
- provide comparative and critical evaluations on the environmental sustainability of the process
- provide in-depth knowledge on the main classes of chemical formulations
- provide in-depth knowledge on the ingredients of chemical formulations (synthesis and chemico-physical properties)
-provide a comparative and critical evaluation of the most well-known formulas on the market
The conceptual tools for a critical understanding of industrial processes are provided with regard to:
- choice of the process, the plant and the technology to be applied to obtain a chemical intermediate
- choice of the process and the ingredients to be applied to obtain a chemical formulation
- evaluation of total costs
- environmental and safety issues
-problem related to the packaging materials of intermediates and formulations
The acquisition of a formally correct language is required, the ability to express content in a clear and linear way is encouraged.
The links between the different parts of the course and with courses already followed by the students in previous years and in the current year are highlighted, with particular reference to the contents of organic, industrial and metallorganic chemistry.
The acquired knowledge and the ability to understand the concepts treated are verified through the oral examination during which the student must demonstrate that he has understood the chemical processes treated and that he can compare and discuss them in an independent and critical way.
It is requested to explain by a critical and original presentation on a commercial formulation, analyzing the individual ingredients, their production and their environmental sustainability in relation to the cost and disposal of the product and its packaging.
Course contents summary
FIRST PART: PROCESSES
Most important derivatives of ethylene, propylene, butadiene, isobutene, 1-butene, butane, C5 hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, xylenes, methanol.
Industrial processes for the polymerization of the intermediate base: production of low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene, polybutadiene.
Industrial processes for the production of dichloroethane and vinyl chloride.
Oxidation products of the intermediate base and their main derivatives: processes of production of ethylene oxide and of propylene oxide, production processes of ethylene glycol, Wacker process, processes of production of acetic acid and acetic anhydride, production of vinyl acetate, the processes of oxidation and ammoxidation of propylene, production adiponitrile, production processes of acetone, industrial processes for production of methyl methacrylate, the processes of oxo-synthesis, production processes of formaldehyde, production processes of 'maleic anhydride and of butanediol, adipic acid production, oxidation of benzene to phenol, oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride production processes, processes of production of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate.
Processes of alkylation of benzene with ethylene and propylene: production of ethylbenzene and cumene, styrene production processes, processes of production of phenol, industrial processes for the production of caprolactam.
Industrial processes for the nitration of benzene and toluene, aniline production processes, processes of production of isocyanates.
SECOND PART: FORMULATIONS
Formulations regarding the most important industrial sectors, in particular those most present in the territory.
Introduction about general principles and multidisciplinarity of the topic, about the product marketing, the application of multivariate analysis, and problems related to scale up.
Detergency: important ingredients; main classes of anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric surfactants; enzymes, dyes, optical brighteners, bases and technological additives.
Indices of detergency, choice of surfactant.Chemico-physical and rheological parameters.
Examples of detergent products and their formulation.
Cosmetics: classification of cosmetic products and classes of ingredients, in particular pigments and fragrances. Long-term shelf life. Use of preservatives, technological additives and preparation processes for powders and liquid products of various viscosities.
Examples of cosmetic products and critical reading of INCI.
Polymers: main additives, plasticizers and antioxidants, salts for lowering the glass transition point. Gums and elastomers and cross-linking additives.
Drugs: preparation of pharmaceutical products, tablets, solutions and phials.
Harold A. WITTCOFF, Bryan G. REUBEN, Jeffery S. PLOTKIN Industrial Organic Chemicals, 2nd Ed. Wiley InterScience, July 2004
Philippe ARPENTINIER, Fabrizio CAVANI, Ferruccio TRIFIRO' The Technology of Catalytic Oxidations Vol.1 - Chemical, catalytic & engineering aspects Cap. 6-7-8 Ed. TECHNIP, France 2001
Chemical Formulation: An Overview of Surfactant-Based Preparations Used in Everyday Life 2003- RCS Paperbacks
A. E. Hargreaves
An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry- 2009 Heaton
Chemical Process Technology, Moulijn, Makkee, Van Diepen, 2013, Wiley Ed
The course takes place in 72 hours of lessons, during which the students learn the contents of the course. The slides used during the lessons and other supporting material will be uploaded every week on the Elly platform. Registration for the online course is required to download the slides. The slides are considered an integral part of the teaching material. Non-attending students are reminded to check the available teaching materials and the indications provided by the teacher through the Elly platform. The teacher is available by appointment (e-mail) for further explanations.
During the course one or more seminars of experts and visits to chemical plants will be scheduled and promptly communicated to the students.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of learning takes place with two separate exams that affect the final score in the following proportions:
Processes: up to a maximum of 18 points
Formulations: up to a maximum of 12 points.
A written test consists of 9 questions concerning all the topics of the course. Each question has a specific maximum score ranging from 0 to 2.
The score obtained is communicated to the student before access to the oral examination.
Only if the score of 10 is reached, the student is admitted to the oral test.
The oral test is about the discussion of any missing or incorrect answers and assigns a total score ranging Formulations:
The student is asked to prepare a multimedial discussion on a commercial formulation, focusing on role issues, and chemical synthesis of ingredients, cost, life cycle, packaging and safety issues for the environment and the health.
The laude is awarded in the case of the achievement of a score of 30 only if the candidate demonstrates the ability to argue critically and the ability to connect the different parts of the course. The skills of synthesis, use of a correct technical language and communication will be evaluated positively.