# GENERAL PHYSICS

## LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THE COURSE UNIT

This course aims to provide the student with the base knowledge concerning electrostatics and electromagnetism.

Knowledge and understanding:

At the end of the course the student will learn the fundamental phenomena of classical electromagnetism and the laws governing them. It will also be able to solve simple problems related to the topics covered.

Knowledge and applied understanding skills:

The student must be able to analyze electromagnetic phenomena and interpret them on the basis of a mathematical formulation of the physical laws. We will use demonstrations in the classroom to illustrate experimentally the most significant phenomena.

Autonomy of judgment:

At the end of the course, the student must possess the tools to understand the physical phenomena of an electromagnetic nature.

Communication skills:

The student must possess the ability to clearly explain the basic concepts of electromagnetism and to interpret many observable phenomena on the basis of these.

Ability to learn:

The student must have acquired the learning skills of electromagnetism that are necessary for him to undertake further studies with a high degree of autonomy.

Classroom exercises are planned, under the supervision of the teacher. Students are also required to perform

weekly exercises at home on the topics covered in class.

## PREREQUISITES

Course of General Physics 1

## COURSE CONTENTS SUMMARY

Electric charge - Laws of electrostatics - The electric field - Charged particles in an electric field - Gauss Law and its applications - Electrostatic properties of conductors - Electric potential energy - Electrical potential - Relationship between field and potential - Capacitance and capacitors - Capacitors in series and parallel - Electrostatic energy - Dielectrics - Current and Resistance The resistance and Ohm’s laws - The Drude model

- Semiconductors - Series and parallel resistors - Amperometers e

voltmeters

Direct current circuits Batteries - Electricity -

Kirchhoff Laws - RC circuits

Magnetostatic History - Magnetic field - Principle of superposition - Experiments of Oersted, Ampère, Biot and Savart - Strength

of Lorentz - Force on a wire supporting current - Demonstration: forces

between magnets and currents - Non existence of magnetic monopolies - Law of Ampere and amperian currents - Applications of Ampère's theorem: wire

current path, solenoid, current in the plane – Mass spectrometer - Galvanometer - Strength between two wires crossed by current - Field of

one turn: magnetic moment - Magnetic dipole field - Motion of

charged particles in the magnetic field - Demonstration: parasitic currents

Electromagnetic induction Faraday-Lenz's law - Electromotive induced force- Oscilloscope demonstration - Engines and generators - Transformers and inductances - Coefficient of mutual induction

- Self-induction - Magnetic energy and energy density.

Alternating currents: RL circuit - Forced oscillations in a LC circuit - Energy balance in the RLC circuit - Analogy between RLC circuit and damped mechanical oscillator (pendulum, spring).

Maxwell equations. The displacement current - The Maxwell equations

- The oscillating circuit and the antenna - Electromagnetic radiation -

Energy flow and Poynting vector - Radiation pressure and

intensity of radiation

Waves: Waves in elastic media: waves on the strings, on the surface of water, sound waves - Wave function - Phase, wavelength, period, wave vector and frequency - Dispersion relation and phase velocity - Wavefront - Huygens Principle - Interference phenomena -

Wave equation and its derivation from the Maxwell equations in vacuum.

## RECOMMENDED READINGS

W.E. Gettys, F.J. Keller, M.J. Skove, Fisica classica e moderna 2. McGraw-

Hill Libri Italia, Milano, 1998

## ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA

The students who constantly attend the lessons and get a pass on the

infra annum tests, can take a simplified final exam. The others will have

to take a complete one which consists of a written and, if required, an

oral test.

## TEACHING METHODS

Theoretical lessons will be completed with practical ones consisting into

the assisted solution of exercises on the treated arguments. Two written tests are also planned during the course

that can (if carried out successfully) constitute an integral part of the final exam

## FURTHER INFORMATIONS

For further information and to see the results of the tests and exams see the course web site: http://www.fis.unipr.it/fisica2ricco/

## COURSE CONTENTS

see the course web site: http://www.fis.unipr.it/fisica2ricco/