Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is structured in modules, each module is focused on a applicative topic or a peculiar applications (eg Electrocardiogram, hearing and ear;); then the physical concepts strictly functional to the understanding of such applications or physical phenoma are introduced.
The course will allow the student to know and understand some fundamental physical laws and IS Units, in relation to specific applications in the biomedical field, with particular reference to the bloodstream, musculoskeletal, cardiac electrophysiology and in relation to some diagnostic techniques.
The student will use the gained knowledge and understanding in the daily relationship with the patient and in the use of the most common diagnostic techniques.
Course contents summary
The Course of Applied Physics is designed to give an understanding of the basic principles of physics.
In particular the course is structured for the understanding of some topics and the related physics principles.
The first lectures concern the definition of physical quantities such as force, mass, acceleration, force momentum as well as IS Units. Particular enphasis is given to levers in the human body and to the handling of loads.
The second part of the course is devoted to the treatment of the laws of electrostatics and of the electrodynamics with respect to electrocardiogram measured signal, but also to the physiopathological effects of the electric current on the human body.
The third part of the course deals with wave phenomena with particular attention to Eco-Doppler and Ecography diagnostic techniques.
Physical quantities. Vectors and scalars. Units, dimensions. Acceleration. Acceleration, mass, Force of gravity, weight. Newton’s laws. Centre of gravity, barycenter, force momentum. Equilibrium state of a rigid body. Levers and applications to the human body.
Fluids, Pressure, Stevino’s law; work, power and energy. Theorem of kinetic energy. Energy conservation law.
Fluid Dynamics; Flow rate. Characteristics of an ideal fluid. Bernoulli's theorem. Applications of Bernoulli's theorem to blood circulation. Real fluids. Laminar flow. Turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Blood pressure measurement. Surface tension and capillarity.
Elastic properties of a body, Hook’s law, Young's modulus. Elastic behavior of blood vessels and bones.
Electric charge. Coulomb's law. Electric field Electric potential. Electric dipole, dipole momentum, electrocardiogram principle and function.
Effects of electric currents flowing through a human body respect to DC and AC current. Electric current: definition of resistance and capacitance, DC (direct current) and AC current. Ohm's laws. Serial and parallel resistors and capacitors.
Wave phenomena characteristic, acoustic waves. Physical principles of ultrasound, and ultrasound production, piezoelectric crystals. Doppler effect applied to hearing, and Eco-Doppler diagnostic techniques. Doppler Continuous wave and pulsed wave. How to use: A-mode; B-mode; M-Mode. Attenuation curve and time gained compensation curve. Lateral and axial resolution. Bidemensional ecographic ultrasound systems. Scan-Prenatal. Ultrasound biological effects: thermal effect and mechanical effect
Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic waves and geometric optics, index of refraction;law of reflection and refraction;; lens, mirror and diopter systems The human eye. Use the thin-lens equations to determine location, size, orientation, and nature of the images formed by simple lenses.
The aims of the course will mostly be achieved with lectures.
Assessment methods and criteria
The achievement of the course aims is proofed by a written examination. Using open-ended questions about the contents of the course it will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of content about specific biomedical applications. Through questions it will be determined whether the student has also achieved the aim of applying the knowledge acquired to comprehension of the principles of diagnostic techniques presented during the course.
Furthermore, by applying the acquired knowledge and understanding, the student must be able, collaborating with other professionals,
- to contribute to the correct performance
of some diagnostic tests such as EGC, ultrasound and eco-Doppler, as well as common practices such as patient handling or pressure measurement.
- to avoid and to prevent behaviors that could lead to pathophysiological effects of the electric current on the human body.