OBSTETRICS AND GENERAL HYGIENE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student must acquire the knowledge of epidemiology and prophylaxis of infectious and non infectious diseases , the risk of infection during the pregnancy , the means of prevention.
The student must also acquire knowledge
of the fundamental aspects of nutrition:
-nutrients, foods, nutrition, with particular reference to pregnancy, as well as the dietary guidelines for some diseases of interest.
The student must also acquire specific knowledge about nursing and midwifery care procedures of basic science.
Knowledge of basic anatomy and physiological functions
Course contents summary
Fundamental concepts of:
Embriology and physiology of early pregnancy.
Epidemiology and prevention of infectious and non infectious diseases ;means and strategies of prevention; the levels of prevention; immune prophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis.
Nutritional aspects and dietary guidelines for pregnant and breast-feeding woman .
Theoretical and practical aspects of obstetric-nursing sciences.
Health and disease concepts
Epidemiology :definition and study areas.
Causal and risk factors. Overview of health demography. Data sources. Health indicators.
Epidemiological measures: rates and proportions; prevalence and incidence. Risk measures and causal relationship. Association. Epidemiological studies (outline).
General epidemiology of infectious disease. Sources of infection, mode of transmission .
Factors favoring the spread of infections.
Ways to onset of infections in the population.
The objectives and the methods of the prevention.
Prevention of infections:
discovery and inactivation of infection sources, interruption of transmission chains; increase of resistance to infections .
General principles of prevention of not infectious diseases.
Tertiary, secondary (screening), primary prevention.
Hospital acquired infections
Hygiene of environment
Drinking water. Quality-supply sources and possible ways of pollution; requisites of the drinkability of the water
Food hygienic safety problems (overvview)
SCIENCE AND DIETARY TECHNIQUES APPLIED.
1.The nutrients: macro-and micronutrients.
2. Foods. Foods of higher nutritional interest.
3. The nutrition groups. Features
4. Requirements and dietary guidelines for pregnant women in the different trimesters of for breast-feeding woman
5. Treatment with diet in pathological conditions of pregnancy: diabetes
6. Differences between breast milk and cow's milk
7. The metabolic syndrome and diabetes: dietary approach
OBSTETRIC-GYNECOLOGICAL NURSING SCIENCES
Scientific, methodological and social principles of diagnostic procedures for the adult through the collection of a bloody sample.
Urinary tract and Reproductive system: human regulatory mechanisms, the characteristics of the urine, sterile urine collection and not - sterile, the bladder catheterization in gynecological patients.
Collection of biological samples: culture swabs and urine culture.
Skin cleaning, skin heals, treatment of surgical wounds.
Infections related to ICPA care procedures. Infection prevention and healthcare procedures.
Hands washing: types and procedures.
Concept of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization; infections control.
Personal Protective Devices and Individual security (DPI).
Disposal of medical waste.
System for thermoregulation control and thermoregulation mode: body temperature, the main thermal alterations.
Cardiovascular system and methods of assessment: The heart rate, Arterial blood Pressure, ECG.
Respiratory system and methods of assessment: respiratory rate, characteristics of breathing, main symptoms of impaired respiratory function, interventions to promote respiratory function.
Blood-gas analysis. Measuring the saturation through Pulse Oximetry and Oxygen Therapy.
Products and technology: medical devices for intravenous administration and injection therapy.
Procedures carried out:
Dilution of drugs.
Therapeutic intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous administration.
The collection of a blood sample through venipuncture.
The application of Peripheral Venous Catheter.
Blood sample collection using capillary blood sampling in the adult and newborn.
Capillary blood glucose detection.
Female bladder catheterisation.
Collection of biological samples: swabs and urine culture cultivation. The blood culture.
Simple dressing of surgical wounds.
Washing hands: social procedures, surgical and aseptic.
Use of personal protective equipment and individual security.
Detecting vital signs: heart rate, arterial blood pressure, ECG, respiratory rate, EGA.
Arterial blood gas analysis.
Measuring the saturation via Pulse Oximeter. Oxygen therapy.
Igiene.Barbuti et altri
Edit. Monduzzi-III Ed.(2011)
Linee guida Ministero della salute sulla gravidanza fisiologica
Costantini W.,Calistri D. "Ostetrica" vol.1-2 Piccin Ed., 2013
Linee guida “Take reference to INRAN : www.inran.it
2-Nutrizione Clinica. Di Magnati G. RussoC e DAZZI D., Edito da EdiSES di Napoli, 1987.
3. “Manuale di Nutrizione Applicata” Riccardi ed. Sorbona
4.” La nutrizione del bambino sano Faldella Pensiero Scientifico
Albinelli. P., L’infermiere tra teoria e prassi. Un manuale per la didattica di laboratorio clinico. Athena, Modena 2008.
Lynn P., Manuale di tecniche e procedure infermieristiche di Taylor. Un approccio al processo del nursing. Piccin Nuova Libraria; 3° ed italiana; 2016
Appunti del docente
Frontal lessons with the use of visual supports, discussion with students and guided exercises.
Slides and audiovisual material
Notes provided by the teacher
Assessment methods and criteria
The student's knowledge, topics' comprehension and her/his skill to apply them on the occupational contexts will be evaluated by questions on the topics related to the course content. Failed answer to one or more questions or proved insufficiency of the basic knowledge on the subject will preclude the successful completion of the exam. In case of completion of the exam, an evaluation that contributes to the final grade of the course will be defined and it will be based on the achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient).