MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology aims to allow the student to know and understand basic notions and updated scientific knowledge about the taxonomic, morphological, physiological, genetic, pathogenetic, epidemiological, immunological and pharmacological characteristics of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses etiologic agents of human infectious diseases. It also aims to provide the capacity of evaluation, interpretation and managing of microbiological and virological approaches for the diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of infections of the oral cavity and control of cross-infections in dentistry and to use in occupational contexts the knowledge and understanding acquired in the field of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology.
Course contents summary
The course includes, after the presentation and a brief introduction to Microbiology, the treatment of aspects related to: general characteristics of microorganisms and viruses, genetics of microorganisms and viruses, microbial metabolism and cultivation of microorganisms and viruses, host-parasite relationships in infection and infectious disease (pathogenicity and virulence), general information on the main infectious diseases, antimicrobial and antiviral drugs and related mechanisms of resistance, infection and immunity and prevention of infectious diseases. Particularly in-depth will be the topics related to Oral Microbiology, including oral microbiota, plaque, caries, periodontal diseases and their control.
Introduction to Microbiology. Evolution of microorganisms and microbiology. The bacteria: cell structure, classification, reproduction, sporogenesis and germination, metabolism, cultivation, genetics, mechanisms of pathogenicity. The fungi: yeasts, molds. The parasites: protozoa, metazoa. The viruses: chemical composition and structure, classification, replication, interference, cultivation and titration, mechanisms of pathogenicity. General outlines of infectious diseases: endogenous and exogenous infections. Innate and adaptative immunity against infections. Principles of direct and indirect microbiological diagnosis. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral drugs. Mechanisms of resistance of pathogens to anti-infective drugs. Principles of drug sensitivity testing of pathogens to anti-infective drugs. Prevention of infectious diseases: active and passive immunity. The mouth as a microbial habitat. Oral microbiota. Acquisition, adhesion, distribution and metabolism of the oral microbiota. Dental plaque. Dental caries. Periodontal diseases. Oral bacterial infections. Oral fungal infections. Oral viral infections. Therapy and prophylaxis of oral infections. Cross-infection control dentistry. Microbiological principles for disinfection and sterilization.
M. La Placa. Principi di Microbiologia Medica. XIV ed., Società Editrice Esculapio, Bologna -EdiSES, Napoli, 2014.
Marsh & Martin’s. Oral Microbiology. 6th Edition, Elsevier, 2016
Marsh P., Martin M.V. Microbiologia Odontoiatrica. Edizione italiana a cura di Polonelli L., UniNova, 2005.
The topics concerning the contents of the course will be presented and discussed through lectures with the help of iconographic material collected in PowerPoint files which, at the end of the course, will be made available to the students. During the lessons the main concepts of each topic will be exposed, emphasizing the links between the various parts of the course and encouraging the active participation of the students.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives foreseen by the course will be carried out through an oral examination. No interim evaluation is programmed. Questions relating to the contents of the course will be used to verify whether the student has achieved the objective of knowledge and understanding the scientific discipline and is able to use the technical-scientific language in an appropriate manner and to apply the knowledge acquired in occupational contexts. Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, a grade, expressed in thirtieths, will be attributed according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient), which will contribute to the final grade of the integrated course of Microbiology and Hygiene (Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology - 6 CFUs, Principles of microbiological diagnosis - 2 CFUs, General and applied hygiene - 2 CFUs), obtained on the basis of the average of the grades assigned in the different modules. The honors will be given to students who have demonstrated particular communication skills and autonomous learning. The result of the examination is communicated immediately to the student, and, after its immediate acceptance, is then published on the ESSE3 portal (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do).