MICROBIOLOGY AND HYGIENE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The integrated course aims to allow students to know and understand basic concepts and updated scientific knowledge concerning the taxonomic, morphological, physiological, genetic, pathogenetic, epidemiological, immunological and pharmacological characteristics of microorganisms and viruses, as etiologic agents of infectious diseases in humans. It also aims to provide the ability to evaluate, interpret and manage microbiological and virological approaches for the diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of oral infections and control of cross-infections in dentistry. Furthermore, it also aims to provide students with knowledge of epidemiological methods for the analysis of health phenomena and health needs for the planning and evaluation of public health interventions, tools for reading and interpreting scientific articles, as well as allowing them to use in occupational contexts acquired knowledge and understanding.
Course contents summary
The integrated course includes the treatment of aspects related to: general characteristics, genetics, metabolism and cultivation of microorganisms and viruses, host-parasite relationships in infection and infectious disease (pathogenicity and virulence), general characteristics of the main infectious diseases, antimicrobial and antiviral drugs and related mechanisms of resistance, infection and immunity and prevention of infectious diseases. Particularly in-depth will be the topics related to Oral Microbiology, including oral microbiota, plaque, caries, periodontal diseases and their control. The criteria of the direct and indirect microbiological diagnosis, the microbiological and virological microscopic, cultural and serological tests and the in vitro susceptibility testing of microorganisms to the anti-infective agents will also be treated. Finally, the objectives of epidemiology and epidemiological methods will be discussed for the analysis of health phenomena and health needs, for the planning and evaluation of public health interventions.
Microbiology. Evolution of microorganisms and microbiology. The bacteria: cell structure, classification, reproduction, sporogenesis and germination, metabolism, cultivation, genetics, mechanisms of pathogenicity. The fungi: yeasts and moulds. The parasites: protozoa and metazoa. The viruses: chemical composition and structure, classification, replication, interference, cultivation and quantitation, mechanisms of pathogenicity. General outlines on infectious diseases: endogenous and exogenous infections. Innate and adaptative immunity against infections. Principles of direct and indirect microbiological diagnosis. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral drugs. Sensitivity testing and mechanisms of resistance to anti-infective drugs. Prevention of infectious diseases: active and passive immunity. The mouth as a microbial habitat. The resident oral microbiota. Acquisition, adhesion, distribution and metabolism of the oral microbiota. Dental plaque. Dental caries. Periodontal diseases. Oral bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Therapy and prophylaxis of oral infections. Cross-infection control in dentistry. Microbiological principles for disinfection and sterilization.
Principles of Microbiological Diagnosis. Criteria for the direct and indirect microbiological diagnosis. Principles of microbiological and virological microscopical, cultural and serological examination. Principles for the execution of drug susceptibility testing.
Hygiene. Definition, scope and uses of epidemiology. The role of epidemiology in planning and evaluating public health interventions. The sources of the statistical-epidemiological data. Descriptive epidemiological measures. Epidemiological measures of risk. Ecological studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, experimental studies. Epidemiological study design. Bias in Epidemiology. The management of an epidemic.
M. La Placa. Principi di Microbiologia Medica. XIV ed., Società Editrice Esculapio, Bologna -EdiSES, Napoli, 2014.
Marsh & Martin’s. Oral Microbiology. 6th Edition, Elsevier, 2016
Marsh P., Martin M.V. Microbiologia Odontoiatrica. Edizione italiana a cura di Polonelli L., UniNova, 2005.
Signorelli C. Igiene e sanità pubblica. Società Editrice Universo, 2017.
Montagna M., Castiglia P., Liguori G., Quarto M. Igiene in Odontoiatria. Monduzzi Editore, 2004.
The topics concerning the integrated course will be presented and discussed through lectures with the help of iconographic material collected in PowerPoint files which, at the end of the course, will be made available to the students. During the lessons the main concepts of each topic will be exposed, emphasizing the links between the various parts of the course and encouraging the active participation of the students.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives foreseen by the course will be carried out through an oral examination. No interim evaluation is programmed. Questions relating to the contents of the course will be used to verify whether the student has achieved the objective of knowledge and understanding the scientific discipline and is able to use the technical-scientific language in an appropriate manner and to apply the knowledge acquired in occupational contexts. Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, a grade, expressed in thirtieths, will be attributed according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient) and the grades assigned in the different modules (Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology - 6 CFUs, Principles of microbiological diagnosis - 2 CFUs, General and applied hygiene - 2 CFUs). The honors is given to students who have demonstrated particular communication skills and autonomous learning. The result of the examination will be communicated immediately to the student, and, after its immediate acceptance, will be published on the ESSE3 portal (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do).