ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ENGINEERING
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1°- Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the lessons the student will know the biological, chemical and physical parameters that characterize the quality conditions of water and environment. He will have acquired the knowledge of the main techniques for the treatment and purification of water and the disposal of municipal solid waste. He will have acquired the knowledge of the regulations about the environment. He will understand the technical terminology in the field.
2°- Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will be able to assess the quality of the water and the environment and to analyze properly the components of the water treatment plants and the solid wastes, within the Italian regulatory framework.
3°- Making judgments
The student will acquire the ability to outline the real problem to find the technically sound and cost-effective design solutions.
4°- Communication skills
On passing the exam, the student should have acquired sufficient correct use of the language with regard to the topic specific terminology.
5°- Learning skills
The student should have acquired the basic knowledge of the discipline that will allow him to learn independently the future developments of the discipline.
The course covers the basics of Chemistry and Hydraulics that the student should have acquired in the bachelor's degree.
Course contents summary
The Environmental and Sanitary Engineering course is oriented to the understanding and solution of pollution problems, with respect to the environment consequences and to the actions needed for the protection and restoration of compromised natural resources (water, air, soil). In the lectures, attention is devoted to the pollution of water bodies with slow or fast renewal and the general principles of the treatments that
are necessary for the treatment of the water supply (potable or industrial) and waste water (in order to allow a correct environmental load in the final receptor).
In the second part of the course, the problems associated with the management of the full cycle of waste (municipal and industrial) will be examined; in particular, the lectures cover the various treatment techniques (recycling, composting, disposal in landfill, incineration, energy and materials recovery).
Finally the issues concerning air pollution, techniques for reducing gaseous and particulate pollutants and the fundamentals of the environmental impact assessment procedures are discussed.
Even outside the specialized branch in which the course is inserted, Environmental and Sanitary Engineering can be a source of interest for those who want to approach the problems related to the protection and reclamation of the environment.
The water supply. Definition of water supply. Characteristics of the water supply. Sources of water supply. Characters of natural waters and drawbacks associated with the use of improper water. Requirements of water to be allocated to water supply.
Treatment of water supply. General criteria for drinking water. Flocculation. Sedimentation. Filtration. Disinfection. Softening and demineralization.
The waste water. Characteristics of waste water. Water from civil, industrial and agricultural uses. Pollution of water bodies and eligibility limits. Characteristics of the various water bodies in respect of pollution:
the rivers, lakes, groundwater, sea. Pollution by organic matter, the organic cycle, the biochemical oxygen demand, oxygen balance; auto-deposition. Pollution from inorganic substances; toxicities; bacterial accumulation phenomena; thermal pollution.
Waste water treatment. Generalities on sewage treatment plants. Pre-treatment (screening, grit removal, de-oiling). Sedimentation (process theory and design criteria). Activated sludge (kinetics of the process and criteria for sizing). Chemical and physical treatments (ion exchange, adsorption, stripping, coagulation, reverse osmosis). Treatment of sludges. Combined treatment of civil sewage and industrial waste.
Treatment and disposal of solid wastes. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Controlled disposal. Compost production. Incinerator. Advanced techniques of treatment (pyrolysis, co-firing, pressing, recovery techniques).
Introduction to the problems of air pollution. Problem definition and evaluation of the major sources of air pollution. Pollution produced by industrial activities. The transport and diffusion of pollution. Air pollution prevention with actions at emission. The control of particulate emissions. The control of gaseous emissions.
C. COLLIVIGNARELLI e G. BERTANZA: “Ingegneria sanitaria-ambientale”, Cittàstudi ed., Torino, 2012.
A.MISITI. "Fondamenti di Ingegneria Ambientale", La Nuova Italia Scientifica, 1995.
H.PEAVY-D. ROWE -et al: " Environmental Engineering ", Mc Graw Hill, 1989.
L.MASOTTI: " Depurazione delle acque ", Cadarini, 1991.
TECHOBANOGLOUS, THEISEN, VIGIL: " Integrated Solid Waste Management Mc Graw Hill, 193.
W. W. A. : " Water Treatment Plant Design - ASCE Mc Graw Hill, 1990.
Additional educational material
Lecture notes provided to the students
The course consists of a series of lectures and numerical exercises. The lessons will be carried out using Power Point presentations. The exercises are presented and carried out numerically in the classroom.
Assessment methods and criteria
For students who attend regularly the lectures, the exam consists of two written tests, carried out during the course, followed by an optional interview.
In the evaluation of the written tests the different learning components will be weighted as 40% knowledge of the parameters of water and environment quality and of the techniques of water treatment and solid waste management (knowledge and understanding), 40% identification of the best solution procedure (Making judgments), 20% correct use of the technical language (Communication skills).
For students who do not attend regularly the lectures, the exam consists of a single written exam followed by an oral interview. In the overall evaluation the written test and the oral test will weigh each at 50%.
The evaluation of the written test will be weighted as 70% identification of the best solution procedure (Making judgments), 30% correct use of the technical language (Communication skills).
The evaluation of the oral examination will be weighted as 70% knowledge of the parameters of water quality and the environment, the techniques of water treatment and solid waste management (knowledge and understanding), 30% correct use of the technical language (Communication skills).
Lecture attendance is highly recommended.