Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide the fundamental concepts of Organic Chemistry, as basic discipline applied to the Food Sciences, In particular, it will focus on the basic concepts of the discipline, such as the properties and the reactivity of the organic compounds, with examples from the food sector.
the acquisition of a language formally correct is pursued, the ability to express the content of the concepts in a clear and straightforward way is stimulated, the connections between different parts of the course and how they contribute to the overall understanding of the system are highlighted.
Application of knowledge:
the course provides the tools to interpret in a rational way the molecular composition of foods and the role that the different components play. It stimulates the student's understanding of events behind their phenomenological evidence.
The course of General Chemistry is a prerequisite
Course contents summary
The course of Organic Chemistry deals with the study of the properties and the reactivity of the organic molecules, treated systematically through the study of their functional groups. In particular, the course will focus on the major compounds found in food. In order to better understand the basic concepts of the molecular approach typical of organic chemistry, examples from the food sector will be used.
- Organic compounds. Carbon hybridization, functional groups, common classes of organic molecules.
- Alkanes: structure, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, conformations. Cycloalkanes. Reactivity of the CH bond: combustion, autooxidation, halogenation. Carbon radicals. Number of oxidation of organic compounds. Alogenoalkanes.
- Carboxylic acids: structure, nomenclature, acid properties. Amines: structure, nomenclature, base properties. Amino acids: acid-base properties, isoelectric point.
- Chirality. Relative and absolute configuration. Diastereoisomers, enantiomers.
- Alcohols: structure, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, reactivity. The concepts of nucleophile and electrophile. Nucleophilic substitution reactions, Sn1 and Sn2 mechanisms. Carbocations. Elimination reactions, E1 and E2 mechanisms. Ethers. Thiols. Sulphides.
- Alkenes, structure, nomenclature and properties. Isomerism. Hydrogenation of the double bond. Mechanism of electrophilic addition to double bonds: addition of halogenhydric acid, water, halogens. Polymerization, synthetic and natural polymers. Dienes, the effects of conjugation. Alkynes.
- Aromatic compounds, aromaticity and Hückel rules. Heteroaromatic. Phenols and aromatic amines.
- Derivatives of carboxylic acids. Mechanism of nucleophilic acyl substitution. Esters: nomenclature and properties. Basic and acid hydrolysis. Fisher esterification. Amides: nomenclature and properties. Basic and acid hydrolysis of amides.
- Lipids. Structure and properties of fatty acids and triglycerides. Triglycerides formed by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saponification, autooxidation, hydrogenation. Oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity.
- Peptides and proteins: structure, properties and classification. Proteins in food.
- Aldehydes and ketones: structure, nomenclature and physico-chemical properties. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition. Addition of water. Addition of alcohols: formation of hemiacetals and acetals. Addition of amines: formation of imines. Oxidation of aldehydes. Keto-enol tautomerism and aldol condensation.
- Carbohydrates. Saccharide structure, conformation in solution, mutarotation. Glucose, fructose, galactose. Glycosides. Oxidation of sugars, reducing sugars. Reactions with amines, the Maillard reaction. Thermal decomposition: caramelization reaction. Disaccharides: maltose, cellobiose, lactose, sucrose. Hydrolysis of disaccharides, inverted sugar. Polysaccharides: amylose, amylopectin, starch, glycogen and cellulose.
Brown, Poon: Introduzione alla Chimica Organica. Editore EDISES Napoli
The course consists of 49 hours of lectures and 30 hours of tutorials. During the hours of lectures, students are guided to the understanding of the basic concepts and applications of Organic Chemistry. After each set of subjects, classroom exercises are scheduled with the aim of allowing the student to assess their level of understanding of the subject. For this purpose, the proposed problems are discussed in cooperation with the students.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final exam consists of a written test containing problems that are proposed to the solution of the students. The test must be passed with a mark equal or higher than 18/30. The written test will possibly be followed by a non compulsory oral test for the definition of the final mark.
The educational material is provided to the students at the beginning of the course.
The teacher stays with the students for clarification and discussion at the end of the lecture and is available to provide further explanation, by appointment.