PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACOTHERAPY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course of PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACOTHERAPY aims to enable the student
1.to know and to understand the principles of Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics, to classify drugs on the basis of their mode of action and therapeutic application (knowledge and understanding),
2.to use the knowledge and understanding acquired in order to explain the use of drugs in the different pathologies, benefits and drawbacks of their use and the different route of administration (applying knowledge and understanding),
3.to analyze and compare the effects of drugs belonging to different classes and to properly resolve the complex issues related to the use of drugs in clinical practice (polypharmacy, drug-food interactions, use of bioequivalents, use of OTC and SOP, pharmacovigilance system) (making judgments)
4.to integrate the acquired knowledge and information on the proper management of drugs consulting several sources (health agencies, institutional entities, or drug suppliers and patients) (learning skills)
5.to communicate their knowledge and convey clear information on the proper use of medicines, their mechanism of action and their use to patients and interact with medical staff, (communication skills)
Basic knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry. To take the examination, FISIOLOGIA GENERALE and BIOCHIMICA/BIOCHIMICA APPLICATA examinations need to be passed
Course contents summary
The first series of lectures deals with topics of general PHARMACOLOGY such as pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics (mechanism of action of drugs and their fate in the body with reference to their quantitative parameters), the sources of variability in individual response to drugs, drugs for self-treatment, handling and side effects of drugs and elements of clinical pharmacology.
The second set of lessons relates to the description of the PHARMACOTHERAPY applied in disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system (Antidepressants, hypno-sedatives, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, anti-Parkinson, analgesics, antimigraine), cardiovascular (antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, anti-anginal drugs, agents against heart failure), gastrointestinal (anti-secretory drugs, anti-emetics, laxatives, anti-diarrheal, prokinetcs) genitourinary (diuretics, tocolytics, incontinency treatment) respiratory (anti-asthmatic drugs), muscular (myorelaxant and paralyzing drugs), in hemostasis disorders (antiplatelets, anticoagulants, fibrinolytics), anti-dyslipidemic, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs (NSAIDs and Steroids), and chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy (antidiabetic agents)
Pharmacodynamics: pharmacological targets, qualitative and quantitative, analysis of drug action, dose-response curves
Pharmacokinetics: Routes of administrations; Drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination, pharmacokinetic parameters.
ATC Classification of drugs, bioequivalents and Biosimilas, Drugs of self-administration (OTC, SOP)
Drug safety: adverse side effects and iatrogenic toxicity,
Drug therapy: variability and drug-drug, drug-food interactions
Drug development and elements of clinical pharmacology (preclinical, clinical and postmarketing evaluations)
Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous systems and neuromuscular junction
Anatomo-functional organization of ANS
Cholinomimetics and Cholinolytics
Symphatomimetics and antiadrenergic agents
Drugs affecting central nervous system
Anatomo-functional organization of CNS:
Antidepressants, hypno-sedatives, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antiParkinson, analgesics, antimigraine, local anesthetics
Drugs affecting gastrointestinal function: antisecretory drugs, antiemetics, laxatives, anti-diarrheal, pro-kinetics
Drugs affecting renal and cardiovascular function: antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antianginal drugs, agents against heart failure
Pharmacotherapy of asthma and COBP, mucolytics
Pharmacological control of hemostasis: antiplatelets, anticoagulants, fibrinolytics
genitourinary drugs: diuretics, tocolytics, incontinency treatment,
Drug therapy of inflammation and immunomodulators
Agents affecting hormonal homeostasis (antidiabetes)
Chemotherapy of microbial and neoplastic diseases
Textbook: ANNUNZIATO & DE RENZO “Trattato di Farmacologia”. Idelson-Gnocchi, Napoli or
KATZUNG BG “Farmacologia Generale e Clinica”. Piccin, Padova or
RANG HP et al. “Farmacologia”. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Book for further information: GOODMAN & GILMAN’S. “Le basi farmacologiche della terapia”. Zanichelli Editore
Teaching is conducted through lectures, during which the general principles of pharmacology are shown, commented in a dialogic form and applied in specific therapeutic examples.
The pharmacological aspects are addressed after a brief classification of their physio-pathological context, involving students to recall knowledges in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The presentation of multiple sources of information (www.agenziafarmaco.gov.it, www.sifweb.org, www.prontuariofarmaceutico.it, institutional guidelines, AIFA notes and scientific publications) stimulates student’s ability to integrate knowledge and develop learning skills in an autonomous way.
Supplementary teaching materials, used to support lessons (slides), are loaded onto the elly.saf.unipr.it/2019 platform and made available to students after online registration. The teacher is available by appointment (e-mail) for lesson explanations.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course is carried out through an ORAL FINAL EXAMINATION that includes questions regarding the contents of the general part and the special part of the course. The exam is evaluated on a 0 -30 scale. Each examination takes 45 minutes and the vote is immediately announced at the end of the test. The student must demonstrate to KNOWLEDGE and to be able to APPLY KNOWLEDGE acquired on the basic principles of pharmacology and on the classes of drugs used in the various pathological contexts (up to 10/30). The student will have to demonstrate its ability to CONNECT the arguments and to RESOLVE new and complex problems that arise in pharmacological practice (up to 10/30) demonstrating also to possess COMMUNICATIVE abilities in the correct use of appropriate terminology (up to 10/30). Praise is given if the highest score on each question is reached and the student demonstrates an excellent management of the subject. Online registration on Elly platform is compulsory.