Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the General Pathology course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology and mechanisms and alterations of the innate and adaptive immune response. Emphasis will be given to pathology, oncology and molecular immunology and also to minor diseases in order to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained to the understanding of the mechanisms of drug action and to acquire useful skills for future employment.
Course contents summary
Etiology. Cellular pathology. Molecular and Cellular Oncology. Immunology and Immunopathology. Acute and chronic inflammation. Tissue repair. Genetic, biochemistry, metabolic and endocrine Pathology. Pathophysiology of blood. Cardiovascular pathophysiology. Pathophysiology of respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal apparatus. Skin diseases.
Environmental Pathology. Radiation injury by ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Chemical injury. Nutrition and disease: nutritional deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies, obesity, food and cancer.
Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders. Disorders with multifactorial inheritance. Cytogenetic disorders.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Cellular aging. free radical pathology. Oxidative stress. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Effects of tumours on the host. Nutritional and hormonal effects. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1, TH2, TC lymphocytes, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Congenital and acquired Immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
General features of acute inflammation: vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Types of acute inflammation. Systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia. Chronic inflammation: types, morphologic features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemias. Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma
Hemostasis. Trombosis, embolism, angina and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. Hypertension and hypotension. Edema.
Disorders of the respiratory system
Cough. Obstructive pulmonary diseases. Emphysema. Chronic bronchitis. Asthma. Pulmonary infections
Disorders of renal function
Acute and chronic kidney failure. Nephritic and nephrotic syndrome.
Disorders of the gastrointestinal system.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Acute and hgastritis. Peptic ulcer disease. Malabsorption syndromes. Celiac disease. Crohn disease. Diarrhea and constipation.
Dermatitis. Acne. Rash. Burn. Contusions. Psoriasis.
Biochemical, metabolic and endocrine disorders
Disorders of the metabolism of amino acids. Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Cystic fibrosis. Diseases by extracellular accumulation: amyloidosis, prion diseases. Disorders of the thyroid: hyper and ipo-thyroidism, thyroiditis.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Edra IX edizione.
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale.Piccin IV edizione
Abbas A.K. e LIchtman: Le basi dell’ Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. edra V edizione.
The books to be consulted are present in the Library of the Department of Food and Drug.
Some iconographic material used in class will be provided directly by the teacher to the students.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through a written (20 multiple-choice quiz; positive test with 15 right quiz) ) followed by and an oral examination. The examination can be addressed, upon registration online, based on the official exams calendar of the Department of Food and Drug. By at least two questions will be ascertained whether the student has achieved the objective of knowledge and understanding of the scientific discipline and is able to properly use the technical-scientific language and apply the knowledge acquired in occupational contexts. The ascertained inability to answer a question or to prove at least a basic knowledge of the subject will prevent the successful completion of the exam. In case of passing the exam, the attribution of the vote, expressed in thirtieths, will be carried out according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient). Full marks with laude will be reserved to students who have demonstrated particular communication and autonomous learning skills. . ERASMUS students who had passed the quiz can opt for the written exam: the exam (time 1 hour), consists of 5 open-ended questions (for each the score ranges from 0 to 6). The result of the examination is communicated immediately to the student, and, after its immediate acceptance, is then published on the ESSE3 portal (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do)..