Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will have to demonstrate to know and to be able to understand (First Dublin Descriptor) the basic principles of Physiology. To this end, the course aims to provide the student with an adequate understanding:1. of the basic functioning mechanisms of the human body under physiological conditions,2. of homeostatic mechanisms that allow to regulate and adapt the activity of organs and apparatuses to the demands of the environment.The student must be able to learn the principles of Physiology (5th Dublin descriptor), to apply the knowledge acquired to the human organism (2nd Dublin descriptor), to be able to independently assess simple physiological problems (3rd descriptor of Dublin), and to be able to communicate them (4th Dublin descriptor).
Having passed the Anatomy, Chemistry and Physics exams in order to have acquired the knowledge of the courses preceding the Physiology classes.
Course contents summary
The course is divided into three main parts. The first part of the course concerns cell physiology. The second part of the course is dedicated to the physiology of organ and system. The third part of the course is dedicated to integrative physiology, with particular regard to the nervous system.Skeletal muscle. Contraction. Stress / length and speed / load curves. Smooth muscle.Heart: Cardiac action potentials. Electrocardiogram. Cardiac mechanics. Regulation of cardiac contraction. Blood pressure. Blood. Respiratory mechanics. Compliance. Capillary exchanges. Nervous control of breathing. Kidney. Filtration, absorption and secretion. Renal clearance. Regulation of pH and electrolyte balance.Physiology the Nervous System Sinaptic transmission and receptors. Sensory systems: Vision, Hearing. Somatosensory systems. Pain: perception and modulation. Motor control. Spinal reflexes . Autonomic nervous system. Hypothalamus and hypophysis. Sleep. Functional organization of the Autonomic nervous System. Functional organization of the Hypothalamus. Neuroendocrine System: Brain-pituitary-Organ Axes.
Skeletal muscle. Contraction. Stress / length and speed / load curves. Smooth muscle.Blood and lymphatic system: plasma, serum, hematocrit, erythrocytes, white blood cells, platelets, coagulation, erythrocytes sedimentation rate.Heart: Cardiac action potentials. Electrocardiogram; heart and blood pressure holter recording system. Cardiac mechanics. Regulation of cardiac contraction. Blood pressure. Circulation.Vascular smooth muscle. Capillary function. Introduction to lymphatic system.Introduction to specific circulatory districts: heart, brain, bowel.Respiratory mechanics. Compliance. Lung capillary system. Regulation of respiration.Kidney: filtration, absorption, secretion. Renal clearance. GI tract: deglutition, oesophageal peristalsis, gastric motility and secretion, exocrine pancreatic and bile secretion, intestinal peristalsis, digestion and absorption, introduction to gut microbiota.Endocrine system: hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal glands, pancreas, reproductive system.Nerve cell functions. Membrane potential. Synapses. Reflexes. Sensory systems. Sleep. Homeostasis. Autonomous nervous system. Hypothalamus-hypophysis. Respiratory mechanics. Compliance. Capillary exchanges. Nervous control of breathing.Kidney. Filtration, absorption and secretion. Renal clearance.Regulation of pH and electrolyte balance.Gastroenteric system: motility, secretion and absorption.Physiology the Nervous System Functional properties of nervous cells: ionic channels, resting membrane potential and action potential. Mechanisms of synaptic transmission: neurotransmitters and receptors. Neuromuscular synapse. Spinal reflex: stretch reflex and flexor reflex. Sensory systems. Sensory transduction. Somatic system: anatomic and functional organization. Auditory function. Pain. Fundamental organization of Cerebral cortex. Somatic cortices. Fundamental concepts in visual physiology. Motor systems. Basal ganglia. The primary motor cortex. Cortical pathways to motor neurons. Neurophysiology of Sleep. Functional organization of the Autonomic nervous System. Sympathetic Division, Parasympathetic Division and the Enteric Division. Autonomic reflex. Functional organization of the Hypothalamus. Neuroendocrine System: Brain-pituitary-Organ Axes.
Berne- Levy, Fisiologia, CEA
Monticelli Fisiologia, CEA
Fisiologia medica a cura di Fiorenzo Conti. Volume 1. Edi-Ermes editore
Lectures, during which the principles of the discipline will be exposed and the main themes will be addressed with appropriate practical examples. The lessons are accompanied by the display of slides. In addition, academic short movies in English will be presented with the dual purpose of summarizing the most important concepts and of stimulating the active participation of the students. The slides presented during the lessons will be made available on the Elly portal at the end of the course.
Assessment methods and criteria
The evaluation of the acquired knowledge, on the issues addressed during the course, will be verified through a written exam. The exam can be accomplished, upon registration online, in the days of the official exam calendar of the Department of Food and Drug Sciences. The student must demonstrate and have acquired the basic notions of General Physiology and understand the fundamental concepts of each addressed topic. The written exam consists of a quiz part (22 questions True / False) and 4 open questions. The quiz part evaluates the concepts acquired by the student during the course and the ability to understand the topics studied. Open questions assess the ability to use scientific language, the ability to deepen the topics studied and evaluate the communication skills.For each correct answer of the quiz a score of 1 point will be awarded, penalties of 1 point are provided for each wrong answer and there are no penalties for unanswered questions. Each open question will be assigned a score variable from 0 to 2 in relation to the level of correctness of the answer: 0 points not answer or wrong answer; 1 points sufficient; 2 points excellent. There are no penalties for incorrect answers to open questions. The minimum threshold for passing the exam is 18 points, corresponding to 18/30. The results of the examination are published on the ESSE3 portal.