# PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course gives, with a simplified approach, some basic concepts which are necessary to some of the following biology and chemistry courses. In particular, the contents of the present course offer a physical description of the mechanisms underlying many processes relevant for chemistry and biology.

At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to:

Knowledge and understanding

- know and understand the basic concepts of Classical Physics

- identify and exemplify the main laws of Classical Physics, Dynamics, Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism and conservation principles

- explain the meaning of the introduced physical quantities

- remember the fundamental units

- compare physical systems, underlining similarities and differences

- explain the origin of the depicted phenomena on the basis of the outlined physical models

Applying knowledge and understanding

- apply the known physical laws in order to describe a system

- apply the known physical laws in order to set up symbolically simple problems

- do the dimensional analysis

- apply the knowledge to make clear the relationship between physical quantities

- do simple exercises and their numerical calculations

Making judgements

- explain the data of a problem

- analyze the definitions

- evaluate critically the validity limits of the developed models

- identify the correct expression of the outlined physical laws

- attribute to each phenomenon the right framework of physical laws

Ability to communicate

- communicate the physical laws of Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism in a clear, synthetic and effective manner.

Learning skills

- study independently

- relate different topics introduced in the course to concepts acquired in other courses (Chemistry, Maths, Biology)

- valuate the own level of comprehension trying to solve problems similar but not identical to the ones faced in class

- read non only elementary but also higher level texts of Physics with a reasonable grade of autonomy

- change the own theoretical framework in front of simple problems which are not immediately solvable

## Prerequisites

Basics of arithmetic, algebra and calculus

## Course contents summary

Introduction

Mechanics

Fluid mechanics

Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

Optics

## Course contents

Introduction

Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Dimensional analysis and order of magnitude. Measurements and errors.

Mechanics

Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Space-time diagram. Position, velocity, acceleration. Newton’s laws. Fundamental interactions. Work. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy. Conservation of energy. Equilibrium. Rotary motion. Kinetic energy of a rotating body. Torque.

Fluid mechanics

Stevino’s law. Archimede’s law. Continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flow. Stoke’s law. Surface tension. Capillaries and Laplace law.

Thermodynamics

Temperature scales. Kinetic theory of gases. Equipartition of energy. Internal energy. Specific heat. Latent heat and phase transitions. Work and heat. First law of thermodynamics. Some selected transformations. Heat propagation. Heat engines. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot’s cycle.

Electromagnetism

Electric charge. Insulators and conductors. Induction and polarization. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Voltage. Capacity. Capacitors and resistors. Ohm’s and Joule’s laws. Magnetic field. Lorentz force. Ampère’s law. Faraday’s law. Generalized Ampère’s law. Electromagnetic waves. Energy associated with the electromagnetic waves. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves.

Optics

Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum. Polarization. Geometrical optics approximations. Light reflection, refraction and dispersion. Snell’s law. Total reflection. Plane mirrors. Lens and images forming. Relationship between conjugate points. Lenses’ builders equation.

## Recommended readings

Principi di Fisica

Serway Jewett

EdiSES

Fondamenti di Fisica

James S. Walker

Zanichelli

## Teaching methods

Lessons where the dialogue and the discussion between teacher and students are strongly encouraged. In each lesson, the theory will be explained and then will be applied to problems and exercises. Two additional hours a week are devoted to solve exercises and problems within a project named “Progetto Idea” in order to help whom did not pass the entrance exam and in order to offer all students further opportunities of working out.

The slides used to support lessons will be uploaded at the end of the lessons on the Elly platform. To download the slides, you need to enroll in the online course.

Slides are considered an integral part of teaching material. It reminds non-attending students to check the available teaching material and information provided by the teacher through the Elly platform.

## Assessment methods and criteria

There will be a continuous ongoing but informal training evaluation by discussing with the classroom during the Lessons, or at the beginning of the next lesson to see how much the previously explained concepts have been understood.

There will be two in itinere evaluations (two simple problems very similar to the ones solved in class, duration: 30 minutes, only a calculator is admitted). Each test permits to obtain 1 extra-point (2 in total as a maximum) to add to the mark of the final written exam. Please note that the on-line application (on Elly platform) to the exam is MANDATORY. The result of each in itinere test is communicated over the week after the test on Elly platform.

The final exam consists in a written, multiple choice test with 20 questions on theory and exercises (duration: 60 minutes, only a calculator is admitted). The written test is evaluated on a scale of 0-3. 0. To pass the exam, 11 questions should be correctly answered. To the mark of the final written exam the extra-points of the in itinere tests are added, as well as a further extra-point if the exam is passed in the summer exam session. Honors is given in the case of achieving the highest score and the presence of at least 1 extra-point.

The student will be evaluated based on the achievement of the objectives previously specified in details. With a view to verifying whether such knowledge and level of competences have been achieved, the aim of the written examination is to evaluate the ability of the student to re-elaborate, reformulate such knowledge as well as his/her ability to apply the knowledge and skills gained to solve simple problems, identify and analyze the definitions of physical quantities and principles, compare, connect and examine in depth the knowledge gained.

The written final evaluation will be considered insufficient if the student is found lacking in any minimum knowledge of topics and specific language; if he/she doesn’t demonstrate skills in reaching an independent preparation, in analyzing the fundamental properties of physical systems and formulating independent critical judgements.

A final evaluation of sufficient (18-23/30) is determined if the student is able to show that he/she has mastered the basic notions and contents of the course and is sufficiently able to apply and express them, even simply, to discuss the fundamental properties of physical systems and formulate independent critical judgements and opinions.

An average mark (24-27/30) is awarded to the student who can demonstrate he/she possesses a more than sufficient (24-25/30) or good (26-27/30) command of the language and theoretical knowledge according to the above criteria of evaluation. The highest marks ( 28-30/30 and merit) are likewise awarded on the basis of a very good to excellent command of the language and theoretical knowledge according to the above criteria of evaluation.

The result of the written test is communicated over the week after the test, via Email. Please note that the on-line application (Esse3 platform) to the exam is MANDATORY.

## Other informations

On Friday (12:30-14:30 p.m) by appointment (Email) at the Department of Physics and Earth Sciences.