# PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

At the end of the course the student must:

1. know the fundamental laws that rule the nature and that underlie the properties of matter

2. have understood their meaning from a phenomenological point of view

3. be able to apply these laws to understand and explain the everyday phenomena, with particular regard to biology and biomedicine

4. be able to correlate the different arguments each other and with the subjects of the other courses

5. have acquired the specific terminology

6. be able to solve simple problems, with the use of the acquired knowledges

7. be able to explain the procedure used to solve the problems in a sequential and unambiguous manner.

## Prerequisites

Basic concepts of algebra and calculus.

## Course contents summary

Physical quantities and units. Frames of reference and coordinate axes. Vectors.

MECHANICS. Force. Displacement. Velocity. Acceleration. Particular motions. Newton’s laws. Gravity. Free-fall motion. Relative velocity. Normal force. Tension in a cord. Friction. Restoring force of a spring. Centripetal force. Uniform and non-uniform circular motion. Periodic motion. Simple harmonic motion. Simple pendulum. Law of universal gravitation. Work. Kinetic energy. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Generalized principle of energy conservation. Power. Linear momentum and its conservation. Impulse. Collisions. FLUIDS. Pressure. Stevino’s law. Pascal’s principle. Archimede’s principle. Laminar and turbulent flow. Flow rate. Equation of continuity. Bernoulli’s principle. Venturi tube. Torricelli’s theorem. Real fluids. Coefficient of viscosity and Stokes’ law. Poiseuille’s equation. Reynolds’ number. Surface tension.

THERMODYNAMICS. Temperature and thermometric scales. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Thermal expansion. The ideal and real gas law. Kinetic theory of gases. Diffusion and Fick’s law. Heat. Internal energy. Thermal capacity and specific heat. Latent heat and change of phase. Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermodynamic processes. The first law of thermodynamics. Isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Cycles. Specific heat at constant P or V for an ideal gas. The second law of thermodynamics. Heat engines and efficiency. Carnot cycle. Entropy.

ELECTROMAGNETISM. Electric charge. Conductors and insulators. Conduction and induction. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Different kinds of charge distributions and their electric fields. Electric field flow. Gauss law. Electric potential energy. Electric potential. Circuits. Capacitors. Electric current. Resistance. Ohm’s law. Electric power. Joule effect. Magnetic field. Magnetic force. Motion of a charge in a uniform magnetic field. Lorentz’s force. Hall effect. Wires and loops. Ampere’s law. Solenoid. Magnetism in the matter. Magnetic field flow. Faraday’s law of induction. Lenz’s law. Conductor in motion in a uniform magnetic field. Generalization of Ampere’s theorem. Maxwell’s equations in vacuum.

OPTICS. Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum. Geometrical optics. Reflection and refraction. Snell’s law. Total internal reflection. Lens and images forming. Relationship between conjugate points. Lensmakers’ equation. Magnification. Crystalline lens and image formation in the eye. Microscope.

## Course contents

Physical quantities and units. Frames of reference and coordinate axes. Vectors.

MECHANICS. Force. Displacement. Velocity. Acceleration. Particular motions. Newton’s laws. Gravity. Free-fall motion. Relative velocity. Normal force. Tension in a cord. Friction. Restoring force of a spring. Centripetal force. Uniform and non-uniform circular motion. Periodic motion. Simple harmonic motion. Simple pendulum. Law of universal gravitation. Work. Kinetic energy. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Generalized principle of energy conservation. Power. Linear momentum and its conservation. Impulse. Collisions. FLUIDS. Pressure. Stevino’s law. Pascal’s principle. Archimede’s principle. Laminar and turbulent flow. Flow rate. Equation of continuity. Bernoulli’s principle. Venturi tube. Torricelli’s theorem. Real fluids. Coefficient of viscosity and Stokes’ law. Poiseuille’s equation. Reynolds’ number. Surface tension.

THERMODYNAMICS. Temperature and thermometric scales. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Thermal expansion. The ideal and real gas law. Kinetic theory of gases. Diffusion and Fick’s law. Heat. Internal energy. Thermal capacity and specific heat. Latent heat and change of phase. Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermodynamic processes. The first law of thermodynamics. Isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Cycles. Specific heat at constant P or V for an ideal gas. The second law of thermodynamics. Heat engines and efficiency. Carnot cycle. Entropy.

ELECTROMAGNETISM. Electric charge. Conductors and insulators. Conduction and induction. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Different kinds of charge distributions and their electric fields. Electric field flow. Gauss law. Electric potential energy. Electric potential. Circuits. Capacitors. Electric current. Resistance. Ohm’s law. Electric power. Joule effect. Magnetic field. Magnetic force. Motion of a charge in a uniform magnetic field. Lorentz’s force. Hall effect. Wires and loops. Ampere’s law. Solenoid. Magnetism in the matter. Magnetic field flow. Faraday’s law of induction. Lenz’s law. Conductor in motion in a uniform magnetic field. Generalization of Ampere’s theorem. Maxwell’s equations in vacuum.

OPTICS. Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum. Geometrical optics. Reflection and refraction. Snell’s law. Total internal reflection. Lens and images forming. Relationship between conjugate points. Lensmakers’ equation. Magnification. Crystalline lens and image formation in the eye. Microscope.

## Recommended readings

Halliday-Resnick - Fondamenti di Fisica - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Serway & Jewett - Principi di Fisica – EdiSES

J.S. Walker – Fondamenti di Fisica – Pearson

Giancoli - Fisica – Ambrosiana

It is possible to use different books, if appropriate to the course contents.

The slides of the lessons will be given, as well as a collection of exercises for practice workout, also for the initial test.

## Teaching methods

Oral lessons in which the topics of the classic physics will be presented and explained. The arguments will be completed by several examples and exercises to the aim of both understanding the possible applications of the explained concepts and solving problems (of the same kind as those seen during the lessons). In the classroom will be shown, as possible, demonstrative experiments.

For the oral lessons, the teacher will use some slides that will be part of the educational material. These slides will be uploaded on the "Elly" platform some days before the beginning of each new argument. These slides, however, have to be integrated with textbooks and with the notes that students take during the lessons. To download the slides, the on-line registration to the course is needed. A collection of exercises to practice workout will be given.

Students have to check on the "Elly" platform the availability of the educational material and the notices from the teacher.

## Assessment methods and criteria

Written exam, with 3 problems (max 10 points each) and 3 multiple choice questions that the student must explain (max 10 point each). The final mark will be an average between the problems and the questions. Laude will be given if the maximum mark will be obtained, together with the use of a good terminology. Exam will be passed with a minimum mark of 18. However, also mark between 15 and 18 will be assigned; in such a case, the student must perform an oral exam. The marks under 15 will be classified “insufficient”, which means that the student have not passed the exam.

Students can use a pocket calculator only.

The written exam will last two hours. At the end of the exam, the teacher will explain the resolution of the problems and the answer to the questions.

The students can improve the final evaluation with an oral exam, that in case will be performed in a couple of days after the publications of the exam score on the "Elly" platform. The date will be decided together during the written exam. After this date, the exam score will be published on the "ESSE3" platform.

The students can see their performance after taking an appointment with the teacher.

Partial proofs in itinere:

During the course the students could take three partial proofs, at the end of each of the following arguments: mechanics, fluids+thermodynamics, electromagnetism+optics. The data of the proofs will be communicated in the classroom and on the “Elly” platform, on which the students will sign up to each proof. Also in this case, the proof consists of a written exam, with 3 problems (max 10 points each) and 3 multiple choice questions that the student must explain (max 10 point each).

Rules for the partial proofs:

- Marks from 15 to 30 will be assigned. The marks under 15 will be classified “insufficient”.

- With a mark “insufficient” in one of the proofs, the student cannot obtain the exoneration from the final exam.

- The student must obtain a marks of 18 or geater in at least two proofs to obtain the exoneration from the final exam.

- If the mean of the marks obtained in the three proofs is 18 or greater, the student will obtain the exoneration from the final exam and the mean of the marks will be registered as final marks after the registration on the “ESSE3” platform, but only when the student have taken the exam of Mathematics.

- If the mean of the marks obtained in the three proofs is less then 18, the student must take an oral exam.

The results and the mean of the three proofs will be previously uploaded on the “Elly” platform, with the indication of the possible exoneration form the final exam.

Also if the student has obtained a positive results, he can take the oral examination to improve the final evaluation.

At the beginning of the course, students have to take a test to verify their initial skills. This test will be made by 10 multiple answer questions and will be passed with a minimum of 6 correct answers. Students that are absent or that does not pass the test, have a second chance at the end of the course. In case of negative results, they have to take a brief oral exam after the written one.

## Other informations

The course takes part in the IDEA Project, benefitting by the help of a high school teacher that, in a dedicated time (two hours at a week), will go thoroughly into the exercises and problems. This project is useful for each student, but it is particularly addressed to the ones that did not pass the initial test.