Learning outcomes of the course unit
Achieve the basic knowledge on the physiology of CNS and PNS and be able to recognize clinically relevant signs and symptoms of the most important and common diseases related to neurological traumatology
Course contents summary
The brain areas involved in memory and emotions
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Clinical consequences of TBI. Sleep, TBI and spinal injuries. Traumatology of peripheral nerves
Prefrontal cortex - Premotor cortex - Motor and sensory cortex. Broca area - Wernicke area - Limbic system - Amygdala and affective blindness - Hippocampal tour and cognitive maps - Mirror neurons: involved neuronal systems and possible therapeutic opportunities.
Definition of vigilance and conscience - Glasgow Coma Scale - Analogies and differences between sleep and coma - The semiology of coma (motor activity, eye movements and pupillary reactivity, respiratory patterns, brainstem reflexes) - Brain death - Vegetative state - State of minimal consciousness - Lock-in syndrome.
Traumatic Brain Injury: definition, epidemiology, causes, clinical evaluation, histological and structural alterations of brain tissue. Concussion.
Post-traumatic epilepsy, autonomic dysfunction, extrapyramidal, cerebellar and dementia disorders, neuropsychological and cognitive outcomes, intracranial pressure monitoring and procedure to contrast intracranial hypertension.
Impact of the duration of sleep on the evolution of brain injuries related to sports activity. Consequences of traumatic brain injuries on sleep. The main diseases of sleep: insomnia and OSAS. Melatonin: physiology, functions, therapeutic use. Spinal injuries: causes, epidemiology, clinical evaluation, prognosis, management.
Brachial plexus: trunks, branches, nerves (ulnar, radial, median). Main causes of injuries and clinical cases. Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Brachial plexus. Upper gluteus syndrome. Paresthesia meralgia in differential diagnosis with lumbar discopathy.
R. Adams, M. Victor, A. Ropper: 'Principles of neurology' ed Mc Graw Hill;
J. Cambier, M. Masson, H. Dehen: 'Neurologia' ed Massson
Frontal lessons with clinical examples and continuous references to situations related to real life.
Assessment methods and criteria
Interaction with students during the lessons and final oral examination of the study program