PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about the basics of microbiology (general characters of etiologic agents of infectious diseases, host-pathogen interactions and
pathogenesis of infectious diseases, prophylaxis and therapy, drug resistance mechanisms, nosocomial infections), and provide the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts in the
approach to the patient with infectious diseases.
Other important objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing.
The course will allow the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the professional future.
Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.
Course contents summary
Morphological and structural characteristics of microorganisms and viruses and their replication.
Cultivation of microorganisms and viruses.
Normal microbial population of humans.
Important microorganisms and viruses causing diseases in humans.
Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.
Introduction: microorganisms and viruses.
1.Virology. Morphological and structural characteristics of viruses. Viral replicative cycle. Virus cultivation. Common human viral diseases.
2. Bacteriology. The general characters of bacteria. Host-microbe interactions. Normal microbial population of humans. Microbial pathogenicity. Important pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial agents.
3. Parasitology. The general characters of protozoa. Common human protozoa infecting tissues and blood, intestinal and urogenital tracts. Helminths (notes).
4. Mycology. General characters of fungi. Classification of mycoses. Common human mycoses. Antifungal agents.
5. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Pre-analytical phase: sample collection. Detection and identification of the etiologic agent. Antibody detection. Methods for antibacterial and antifungal susceptibility testing.
Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.
Visual aids made available online.
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia Con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli
-J. Maier e Mariotti “Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia” M c G r a w - H i l l
-V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" III ed., Piccin
-G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Patologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
-G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale per I Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding.