Learning outcomes of the course unit
According to the domestic classification, “Macchine” include both fluid machinery (meant as components), and power plants (meant as primary energy converters). Intended to be a continuation of the course given at the third year (Macchine AB), this one completes the knowledge, as for theory and computational skills, required by a modern mechanical engineer.
Macchine (fundamentals), i.e.: Fundamentals of Heat Engines (AKA Thermal Machines), Fundamentals of Pumps & Compressors, Fundamentals of Turbomachines
Course contents summary
Fundamental equations of fluid flow.
Pumps, compressors and motors.
Internal combustion engines.
Analysis criteria for fluid machinery: St. Venant equation, Hugoniot equation, orifice equation, bulk modulus, high temperature dissociation, adiabatic temperature of combustion products, flame structure, similarity in the study of fluid machinery.
Reciprocating compressors, clearance volume, staging, intercooling; rotary (displacement) compressors, internal and backflow compression; reciprocating and rotary pumps, pressure ripples and dampers. Centrifugal pumps, theoretical and actual characteristics, radial thrust, multistage pumps, cavitation, priming, peripheral pumps, series and parallel. Turbo-compressors, stall, surge, multistage compressor characteristic, operating field, choking, rotating stall. Free leaks pumps; ejector.
Fundamentals of thermal plants, cycles and pseudo-cycles, 2nd law, quality number for direct cycles, fuel types and their properties;
Sizing of hydro-power plants. hydraulic turbines, types and their vector-diagrams, exhaust diffuser, cavitation.
Combined cycle power plants: topper vs bottomer power ratio, dual-pressure HRSGs. Combined heat and power plants (CHP).
Fundamentals of internal combustion engines, standard fuel-air cycles, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, combustion process, energy balance, mechanical losses, turbo-charging and mechanical charging. Engine map and automotive applications. Pollutant emissions.
Dossena, Ferrari, Gaetani, et al. - Macchine a Fluido - Città Studi Edizioni
Caputo C. - Gli impianti convertitori di energia - Masson, Milano
Caputo C. - Le macchine volumetriche - Masson, Milano
Caputo C. - Le turbomacchine - Masson, Milano
Ferrari-Motori a combustione interna - Il Capitello
To learn more:
Acton O. & Caputo C. - Collana di Macchine a fluido, 4 voll.- UTET, Torino
Lozza G. - Turbine a gas e cicli combinati - Progetto Leonardo, Bologna
Heywood - Internal combustion engines - McGraw Hill
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test: exercise and questions (2 h).
Oral test: in order to undergo the oral test, the student must have completed the written test on a scheduled date (see the official calendar).
Lecture attendances is highly recommended.