Learning outcomes of the course unit
1°- Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the lesson the student will know the components of the main hydraulic infrastructure: aqueducts and sewage systems. He will know also the theory of the appropriate design methods. He will have acquired the knowledge of the current regulations about aqueducts and sewers. He will understand the technical terminology in the field.
2°- Applying knowledge and understanding
Ability to design and verify aqueducts and sewers within the Italian regulatory framework.
3°- Making judgments
The student will acquire the ability to outline the real problem to find the technically sound and cost-effective design solutions.
4°- Communication skills
On passing the exam, the student should have acquired sufficient correct use of the language with regard to the topic specific terminology.
5°- Learning skills
The student should have acquired the basic knowledge of the discipline that will allow him to learn independently the future developments of the discipline.
The course covers the basics of Hydraulics and Hydrology that the student should have acquired in the bachelor's degree.
Course contents summary
The Course is divided in two parts: in the first the water distribution systems for civil purposes are analyzed (aqueducts), in the second part the urban sewer systems for the drainage of waste and rainfall water are described.
General concepts, water requirements, Needs and their temporal variations. Population forecasts, time prospects of design. General schemes. Division in more networks in case of marked difference in height. Pressure in different working conditions.
Intakes. From springs, from free surface bodies and lakes. Groundwater motion: conductivity, Darcy’s law. Dupuit’s hypothesis. Complete confined wells, uncomplete and phreatic wells. Well construction and screening. Draining trench.
Pipelines. Revision of uniform motion in full pipes. Flow regimes and flow resistance formulas: Moody’s diagram. Check of gravity pipelines: discharge computation for schemes with two and three reservoirs, even in case of summits and sections with free surface motion; working of a pipeline with given input discharge. Design of gravity pipelines: analysis of the route, design of pipes in two reservoir schemes, economic design for schemes with more than two reservoirs, design in case of marked difference in height or summits; working piezometric lines; break manholes, dissipation valves, venting valves, outlets, try parts, special parts. Economic design of pipelines with pumping system; characteristic curve of pumping system, serial and parallel pumping.
Pipes. Materials for pipelines and their characteristics; selection criteria of pipes; junction types, laying and testing of conduits. Accessory devices and valves.
Reservoirs. Main operations of reservoirs; head and extreme reservoirs; piezometric standpipe; design of compensation volume of reservoirs; fire prevention and reserve volume. Management of inadequate storage volumes; modulation of input discharge, stretching thread method. Constructive characteristics of reservoirs: suitable shape, types; command chamber for head and extreme reservoirs.
Distribution networks. Types of network, spatial division of water supply ; sketch of supply. Head losses in pipes with uniform discharge supply. Check of supply networks: Discharge balancing method (Cross) even in case of more head constraints, head balancing method; generalised Newton-Raphson linearisation; cases with complex networks with pumps, valves, etc.
Urban drainage systems
General concepts. Aims, network types (unitary or separated); district and local networks. Technical-economical analysis for the selection of the best solution. Population studies and long-term forecasting. Analysis of civil and industrial users. Plano-altimetric outline of the drainage network.
Estimate of waste sewage. Mean daily annual discharge, discharge of the day with maximum use, minimum flow, maximum flow. First flush water, rain discharges to be treated.
Estimate of storm sewage. Design return period. Hydrology revision: probabilistic investigations on intense rainfalls; rainfall intensity-duration curves; design hyetographs, infiltration capacity and surface detection. Hydrologic models of rainfall-runoff transformation; rational method, travel time and storage method; parameter calibration. Outlines of physically based methods; Kinematic wave on plane surface; free surface unsteady flow equations; transitions.
Design of conduits. Revision on uniform and steady flow. Hydraulic computations of conduits: typical cross sections; reliable slopes and velocities; drum traps; links: jumps, curves, confluence, branches, etc. Sewer washing. Manholes, private entries, venting devices.
Spillways. Spillway role. Constructive characteristics. Outflow discharges and pollution transferred to recipients. Regulations. Lateral spillways: theory and design. Leaping and front weirs (outlines).
Siphons. Constructive sketch; design and hydraulic verification. Cleaning.
Storage reservoirs. Aims and field of application. Design of reservoir with kinematic and storage method. Comparison with physically based methods and historical series. Design sketch and constructive types.
Pipes. Materials and their characteristics, choice criteria.
G. BECCIU, A. PAOLETTI: Fondamenti di Costruzioni Idrauliche, UTET, MilanoFiori Assago (MI), 2010.
D.CITRINI,G.NOSEDA: "Idraulica", Ambrosiana Ed. Milano, 1990.
G. IPPOLITO: "Costruzioni Idrauliche",Liguori Ed.,Na 1993.
L. DA DEPPO e C. DATEI: "Fognature", Cortina Ed., PD 1997.
L. DA DEPPO, C. DATEI, V. FIOROTTO e P. SALANDIN: "Acquedotti", Cortina Ed., Padova, 2000.
V. MILANO: "Acquedotti", Hoepli Ed., Milano, 1996.
Additional educational material available on the University web learning site “Web LEArning in Ateneo” http://lea.unipr.it/ :
Lecture notes "Appunti sul dimensionamento delle canalizzazioni di fognatura con cenni di Idrologia".
Lecture slides. Text of all the numerical exercitations.
Examination texts since 2004.
The course consists of a series of lectures and numerical exercises. The lessons will be carried out using Power Point presentations copy of which is provided in advance. The exercises are presented in the classroom, carried out numerically and then the complete text is uploaded in the University web learning site “Web LEArning in Ateneo” http://lea.unipr.it/ .
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam consists of two written tests on the two parts of the course followed by an optional interview.
In the evaluation of the written tests the different learning components will be weighted as: 50% application of the theory to a real case (Applying knowledge), 25% identification of the best solution procedure (Making judgments), 25% correct use of the technical language(Communication skills).