FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING + INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRONICS (UNIT 2)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1) Knowledge and understanding
This module aims at providing students with basic knowledge and understanding of:
- sensors and transducers for electro-mechanical systems and applications
- circuits based on operational amplifiers for analog signal processing
- simple combinatory and sequential digital circuits
- basic principles and methods for analog and digital automatic control
- power electronic converters
2) Applying knowledge and understanding
Students will be made able to:
- choose the most suitable sensors and transducers for a specific application based on their characteristics and the specifications of the problem
- analyze the behavior of simple circuits based on operational amplifiers
- analyze and design simple analog automatic control loops
- synthesize combinatory logic circuits
- analyze the behavior of the most important electronic power converters and evaluate their performance based on the voltage and current waveforms
The students are expected to be familiar with the notions of mathematics, physics, electrical and electronic circuits taught in the 1st level degree in Mechanical Engineering.
Course contents summary
1. Basic of semiconductor devices and solid-state power switches
2. Static energy conversion
3. Sensors and transducers
4. Signal conditioning
5. Digital signals
6. Closed-loop controls
1. Basic of semiconductor devices and solid-state power switches - 4 hrs
Pn diode. Npn bipolar junction transistor. N- and P-channel MOSFET. IGBT.
2. Static energy conversion - 14 hrs
Introduction and power converter figures of merit. Single-phase half-wave rectifier; battery charger. Single-phase full-wave rectifier with center-tapped transformer. Single-phase full-wave bridge rectifier. Low-pass filters. Single-phase full-wave bridge rectifier with RLE load. Three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier. Switching DC/DC converters: Buck; Boost; Buck-Boost; H-bridge; PWM modulation. DC/AC converters (inverters): single-phase half-bridge inverter; single-phase full-bridge inverter; three-phase full-bridge inverter. Full-bridge inverter modulation: single-pulse PWM, multiple-pulse PWM, sinusoidal PWM; space vector modulation.
3. Sensors and transducers - 8 hrs
Terminology. Displacement, position and proximity:potentiometer; capacitive sensors; inductive sensors; optical encoder; proximity switches; Hall-effect sensors. Velocity and motion: tachogenerator; AC generator; pyroelectric sensors. Force and pressure: load cells; piezoelectric sensors. Temperature: bimetallic stripes; RTD; thermistor; thermodiode and thermotransistor; thermocouples. Optical sensors: photodiode and phototransistor; photoresistor; CCD.
4. Signal conditioning - 8 hrs
Amplifiers and network functions. Differential amplifiers. Operational amplifiers: frequency behavior. Examples of application of operational amplifiers. 741 amplifier. Instrumentation amplifier: INA114. Logarithmic amplifier. Comparator. Protection and isolation circuits. Passive and active filters. Wheatstone bridge. A/D conversion: sampling and Shannon theorem. D/A converters: weighted resistor DAC; ladder DAC; ZN558D. A/D converters: successive approximations ADC; ZN439; flash converters. Sample & hold amplifier. Multiplexer. Data acquisition boards.
5. Digital signals - 4 hrs
Combinatory logic and logic operators; laws of De Morgan. Karnaugh maps; parity generator; comparator; decoder. Sequential logic: asynchronous and synchronous SR flip-flops; D and T flip-flops; JK flip-flop; registers; timer 555.
6. Closed-loop controls - 4 hrs
Lag and steady-state error. On-off control. Proportional-integral-differential (PID) control. Digital control. Adaptive control.
Topics 3, 4, 5, 6:
W. Bolton, "Mechatronics - electronic control systems in mechanical and electrical engineering", 4th ed., Pearson Educational, ISBN 978-0-13-240763-2.
Topics: 1, 2:
M. Rashid, "Power electronics", 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0-13-122815-3.
Topics 1, 4:
R. Menozzi: "Appunti di elettronica", 2a edizione, Pitagora Ed., ISBN 88-371-1624-1.
Classroom lectures and exercises solved by the instructor and by students. Some lectures use slides available to students for downloading.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral exam. There is a single exam foe the two modules making up the integrated course. Students will have to demonstrate knowledge of the components and circuits treated in the lectures, and understanding of their behavior and operation. It is considered important that students be able to solve simple quantitative exercises by hand calculation.
The course web pages can be found on the Elly platform.