Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is twofold. The lectures will provide the basic notions on rock-forming processes (magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary). The laboratory is intended to to provide the basis for rock identification on the basis of their structural and textural features and mineral associations.
The practical exercises are divided in two parts: 1. identification and description of hand samples, 2. identification and description of the rocks in thin section by optical microscopy
Course contents summary
1. Introduction to main processes of rock formation.
2. Magmatic rocks: physical and chemical features of magmas, crystallisation of magmas, magma evolution. Classification of magmatic rocks: structural and textural features, mineral associations, chemical compositions.
3. Metamorphic rocks: definition, conditions and types of metamorphism. Metamorphic minerals and metamorphic structures. Classification of metamorphic rocks.
4. Sedimentary rocks: rock degradation, sediment transport and deposition. Lithification of sediments. Composition, structure and texture of sedimentary rocks and their classification.
5. Rock-environment interactions. Rock alteration and soil formation
6. Principles of optical crystallography and mineralogy
1. Description and classification of main types of magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks (hand samples)
2. Use of the petrographic optical microscope: main ortoscopic and conoscopic observations and determination
3-Identification of the main rock-forming minerals
4. Microscopic description and classification of main types of magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
MacKenzie W.S., Guilford C. - Atlante dei minerali costituenti le rocce in sezione sottile. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna
MacKenzie W.S., Donaldson C.H., Guilford C. - Atlante delle rocce magmatiche e delle loro tessiture. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna
Yardley B.W.D., Mackenzie W.S., Guilford C. - Atlante delle rocce metamorfiche e delle loro microstrutture. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna
Adams A.E., MacKenzie W.S., Guilford C. - Atlante delle rocce sedimetarie al microscopio. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna
D'Argenio B., Innocenti F., Sassi F.P. - Introduzione allo studio delle rocce. Ed. UTET, Torino
Peccerillo, A., Perugini D. - Introduzione alla petrografia ottica. Con CD-ROM. Ed. Morlacchi
Deer W.A., Howie R.A., Zussman J. - Introduzione ai minerali che costituiscono le rocce. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna
Morbidelli L. – Le rocce e i loro costituenti. Bardi Editore, Roma
-LABORATORY: study of hand samples and thin section observations using polarized optical microscopy
The laboratory exercises will be individual and will allow the student to realize independently the analytical procedures required for the identification of mineral and rock types
Assessment methods and criteria
Evaluation is accomplished through and oral examination including 5 questions on:
-description an classification of 2 rock samples (hand samples)
-description and classification of a rock sample in thin section and of its constituent minerals
-petrogenetic (rock-forming) processes
Each question may be evaluated up to 6 points