PHYSIOLOGY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF MOTOR CONTROL
Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the course the student knows and undertstands the main short and long term modifications of the human body induced by physical activity, the neural mechanisms underlying motor control and the principles of the neuropathology of the motor system, of the methods and tachniques for neurological examination. The student will be able to apply this information for implementing programs of motor activities in healthy people and in stable patients. The course also aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge on the means, methods and content of training, depending on age, gender, morphological characteristics and the type of disability of the subjects. Moreover, at the end of the course, the student should know the classification and health care of physical activities and sports in the disabled, the conditions and major alterations of the several organs and systems that affect the performance of physical activity in people with disabilities.
Course contents summary
The course consists of different modules aiming to provide a multidisciplinary view of the physiological mechanisms underlying short and long term adaptation to physical activity, of the neural mechanisms underlying motor control and of the main signs, symptoms, deficit and problems of motor control deriving from lesions and diseases of the nervous system. The course also aims to introduce guidelines for the prescription of exercises for the main disability, the relevant tests for evaluation and intervention programs, general and individualized. The course aims to teach how to lead and manage the adapted physical activities and sports, according to the process of education, rehabilitation and adaptation of bio-psycho-social environment of the subject. (see specific forms)
Cardiovascular system and physical activity
Respiratory system and physical activity
Skeletal muscle and physical activity
Movement planning and the control of movement execution.
Triphasic pattern of EMG
The force-time function
Muscle mechanics and theory of the equilibrium point
The isochrony principle and space-time invariants
The principle of the maximal smoothness and of the rectilinear trajectories
The visuo-motor integration
The coding of space in the motor control
The role of the visual feedback in the movement control
The Fitts's law
The theory of the optic flow
The role of the somaesthetic information in the movement control
Basic principles of motor system clinical examination; Motor syndromes; Basic principles of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Botulinum toxin and its role in motor disorders.
The program examines:
Definition of deficits, disability and various aspects of the disability
Disability in school
Learning and technical aspects of physical activity and sport
Adapted physical activity and sport: methodological aspects of teaching
educational intervention Design
Health care of adapted physical activity and sport
see specific forms
Oral lessons and practical work
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination is oral and will aim to verify the knowledge of the students on the content of the course and the capacity of applying this knowledge to physiopathological examples.