Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide a basic knowledge of the morphological changes induced by diseases in organs, cells and molecules as a foundation for understanding etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy.
The student will learn the role of Surgical Pathology in modern clinical medicine and the diagnostic techniques and applications currently in use, including cytology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology applied to human tissues and cells, and electron microscopy
The student will be asked to integrate the notions provided by the course with previous knowledge in anatomy, physiology and general pathology to the understanding of:
• nomenclature and classification criteria of diseases;
• causes, molecular and physio-pathological bases, and pathological features of relevant disorders;
• basic notions concerning clinical presentation, natural history, complications and therapy of relevant anatomo-clinical entities;.
• differential diagnosis of main organ and tissue pathologies and choice of appropriate diagnostic strategies.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to integrate the knowledge provided by disciplines to:
• give appropriate indications to perform a pathological analysis;
• fill out correctly a pathology request form and interpret a pathology report;
• communicate appropriately with professionals of other disciplines;
• approach correctly the diagnostic strategy of the main tissue and organ pathologies;
• identify and interpret clinical courses and complications of the different disorders;
• understand the clinical implications of a pathological diagnosis.
Basic notions of anatomy, physiology and general pathology.
Course contents summary
The program of the Course includes the systematic review of the pathological basis of the diseases of the placenta and the pregancy. It will also provide basic notions on the disease of the female genital apparatus and the breast.
Basic information concerning the etiology, the molecular and physio-pathological bases of diseases, the clinical presentation, natural history and complications of the individual anatomo-clinical entities and organ pathology will be provided. The different methods available for macroscopic diagnosis and cytological and histological sampling will be discussed. The role of ancillary techniques such as immunostains, FISH, molecular biology and electron microscopy will also be examined. The significance of the study of pathological cells, tissues and molecules in current strategies of prevention, diagnosis , prognosis, prediction and cure will be specifically emphasized.
PLACENTA AND PREGNANCY. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatiform mole, complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, trophoblastic tumor of the implantation site. Placental diseases: infections, twin gestations, placental malformations, vascular disorders.
VULVA. Vulvar dystrophy, lichen sclerosus, squamous hyperplasia. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), carcinoma and variants; vulvar Paget’s disease,
CERVIX. Cervical intraepithelail neopalsa (CIN and SIL), squamous cell carcinoam and adenocaricnoma, variants, classification and staging.
ENDOMETRIUM. Adenomyosis, endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasai, polyps, adenocaricinoma, variants, grading and staging.
MYOMETRIUM. Leiomoyoma and variants, leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma.
OVARY: Functional cysts, epithelial ovarian tumors, variants, grading and staging germ cell tumors, tumors of the stroma and sex cords.
BREAST. Infections, ductal ectasia, fibro-cystic changes, non prliferative, proliferative and atypical. Tumors: fibroadenoma, papilloma, filloid tumor, carcinoma insitu and invasive, variants, grading and staging.
Robbins & Cotran, Pathologic basis of diseases, Elsevier, 8° Ed. (specific chapters).
Rubin, Pathology, Mosby 2006 (specific chapters).
Practical demonstrations in small groups.
Assessment methods and criteria
A written examination using multiple choice questions will be used to assess the reaching of learning targets. Questions will be aimed to assess knowledge and understanding of basic notions and the ability to translate this information into appropriate actions and behaviors in the relevant clinical situations.