HISTORY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to develop a path that, through the direct study of the texts, allow critical understanding of a central theme in the history of modern and contemporary political philosophy. The intertwining of conceptual study, historical reconstruction and analysis of classical texts would in fact allow the student the development of complex philosophical skills.
Course contents summary
NATURAL RIGHT AND SOCIAL CONTRACT IN THE XVII CENTURY PHILOSOPHY : HOBBES, SPINOZA, LOCKE
Through the presentation and discussion of some classic texts of modern political philosophy, the course will analyze the main theoretical concepts (natural state / civil status, sovereignty, representation, state, freedom, democracy, equality, etc.) of political philosophy condensed in the tradition of modern natural law , in the light of the crisis of late medieval universalism and of the Aristotelian-scholastic paradigm of the political order. In the seventeenth century began to change all concepts that, in the long tradition of European thought, have denoted the philosophy and politics. Thus we can assist to the formation of a new constellation of concepts, which assume a rational and individual perspective: in particular, the sovereign power is constituted as an artificial artificially legitimate power through a process of rationalization and disciplining of human passions. This process can realize itself through the transfer of the rights in the representative person (the modern State, holder of the monopoly of legitimate coercion). The anchoring of the course to the direct study of the texts will allow organization of teaching as a seminar.
Th. HOBBES, Leviatano, ed. it. a cura di A. Pacchi, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2008 (capitoli XIII-XXVI).
B. SPINOZA, Trattato politico, ed. it. a cura di P. Cristofolini, Pisa, ETS, 2011.
J. LOCKE, Il secondo trattato sul governo. Saggio concernente la vera origine, l’estensione e il fine del governo civile, ed. it. a cura di T. Magri, Milano, Rizzoli, 2001 (capitoli II-V, VII-XIII).
L. STRAUSS, Che cos’è la filosofia politica?, Genova, Il Nuovo Melangolo, 2011.
Seminar lectures with reading, presentation, interpretation and discussion of the classical texts, also through the reconstruction of the main historical-philosophical questions.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final test - oral exam - will focus on the texts examined during the lessons. Essential part of the exam consists in the historical-critical discussion of these texts.