ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding.
Students need learn methods for studying the morphological and functional organization of the human body and in particular of: the cell, the tissues, the organs, with an overview of embryology; the anatomy and the histology of the human body, with special emphasis on the cardio-respiratory, urinary and nervous systems.;
Applying knowledge and understanding
Students must use the tools and methods for the study of the morphological and functional organization of the human body
Ability to reason about a protocol and methods for the study of morphological and functional organization of the human body.
Ability to understand and be understood in technical situations
Ability to summarize a technical procedure and to write a scientific progress report
Course contents summary
First lessons: to provide students with the knowledge of the cell and its components, the cell cycle, the stem cells and the processes of cell differentiation, the organization of the human body, the terminology and the body plans. Moreover, the concept of organ, apparatus and system .
The following lessons: tissue organization, description and composition of organs.
Latest lessons: Gross and microscopic anatomy of the systems and apparatus
Organization of human body: terminology and body plans. Concept of
organ, apparatus and system. Locomotion apparatus: general
characteristics and classification of bones, joint and muscles. Blood and
lymphatic vascular apparata: morphology and structure of heart.
Structure of arteries, veins and blood capillaries. General characteristics
of pulmonary and systemic circulation. General characteristics of
lymphatic circulation and lymphopoietic organs (lymph nodes, spleen,
etc.). Digestive system: morphology and structure of oral cavity, tongue,
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Associated
glands: liver, pancreas. The peritoneum. Respiratory system: morphology
and structure of nose cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
The pleura. Urinary system: morphology and structure of kidney and
urinary tract. Ovarian cycle. Description of uterine tubes, uterus.
Endocrine apparatus: general characteristics of structural organization of
endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid, hypophysis, epiphys, adrenal
glands, thymus, Langerhans islets). Nervous system: organization of
central nervous system and its components (spinal cord, encephalic
trunk, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon). Main ways of
general sensitivity and of motor system. General organization of
peripheral and autonomic nervous system.
Visual apparatus: bulb of the eye. Conformation of the bulb of the eye.
Fibrous tunic, vascular tunic and nervous tunic. Optic nerve. Eye dioptric
system. General vascular organisation. Accessory organs of the bulb of
the eye. Orbital cavity. Orbital fat body. Fibrous annexa, motor apparatus
and protection apparatus of the
The biomolecules and the supramolecular complexes. The protoplasm: structure, energetics and functional aspects. The extracellular matrix: structure and function. The animal cell as chemical and physical environment. The cell organelles and apparati: morphological and functional aspects. The cell cycle and the mechanisms of cell replication. Basic knowledge on staminal cells and differentiated cells. Cell populations.
Somatic cells: morphological and functional aspects of the differentiated cytotypes. Germ cells. Tissues.
Testi di riferimento Martini/Timmons/Tallitsch: 'ANATOMIA UMANA', EdiSES, Napoli.
Anatomia dell'Uomo 2° ed. (Ambrosi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes
Material given by the teacher
R. SCANDROGLIO: LA CELLULA; ED. SCIENTIFICHE OPPICI
R. SCANDROGLIO: I TESSUTI DEFINITIVI ED. SCIENTIFICHE OPPICI
Oral lesson, lectures. Practical lessons and direct experience on anatomical models.
Oral lesson, lectures. It will also handle the assimilation of the scientific literature concerning the methods, experimental protocols, animal models and procedures for the characterization of:1) the morphology and composition of the cells; 2) structural and morphological analysis of tissues in various organs.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of an written examination. Through questions about the contents of the course will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content. Written examination by a multiple (four) choice tests. 15 questions on microscopic and gross anatomy and 15 questions on histology. Students must answer correctly at least to 18 questions.