PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY TRAINEESHIP
Learning outcomes of the course unit
It will be developed a critical sense of the different macroscopic appearance of the lesions, the correct interpretation of the microscopic findings and the exact analysis of a pathological report with a possible reference to the potential, several treatment options to take.
Active participation to at least 70% of the lectures given during the course
Course contents summary
Pathology is the pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic path in the modern medicine. Proper pathologic interpretation based on morphological characteristics and biomolecular specific patient pathology(ies) allows modulation of therapeutic no more standard protocols, . Therefore, the course is designed in three stages that allow the progressive and gradual learning of 1) basic concepts of pathological anatomy, 2) the impact of systemic diseases on the specific problems inherent the course of study, and finally on 3) pathologies of oral relevance, even with possible reflection on the body and the "person". It also will be provided a general model of epicritical reasoning with which to confront in everyday life, to understand the importance of interaction of the experts in different oral fields.
I) General Histopathology
1) The Pathologist's Laboratory. Technical Concepts of histopathology. Histopathology. Cytology. The main purpose of the diagnostic examination. The epicrisis. The intraoperative histopathology. The collaboration between clinical and pathologist in the construction of diagnosis for prognositic and therapeutic aim.
2) Pictures of pathologic tissue and organ damage in the graft versus host disease, in autoimmune disease, in acute and chronic inflammatory processes and in the main granulomatosis processes
3) Regeneration and cell growth: the wound healing process
4) Hemodynamic disorders: a) Edema, hyperemia, congestion, hemorrhage; b) embolism, thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); c) Heart attacks: morphological and development frameworks; d) Shock: type, pathogenic mechanisms, evolution
5) Tumors: a) Biology of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, progression, local spread, metastases; b) Cyto-histopathology diagnosis: histological type, grading, staging, prognostic factors. c) Classification of benign and malignant tumors
II) Systemic Pathology
1) Cardio-vascular system: Arteriosclerosis, Arteritis, aneurysms; Varices, thrombosis, thrombo-phlebitis; b) Heart Disease: Angina pectoris, chronic ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, sudden death, c) Valvular heart disease: rheumatic fever and rheumatic endocarditis, bacterial endocarditis. d) Myocarditis, cardiomyopathies specifications, idiopathic cardiomyopathies. e) Pericarditis
2) Blood and lymphatic system: plasma cell dyscrasias (multiple myeloma, solitary myeloma, gammopathies); b) lymphadenitis c) Lymphomas
3) Respiratory Tract: bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, Pulmonary Fibrosis b) pneumonia, bronchopulmonary, pleuritis and Pleural; c) thromboembolism and pulmonary infarction; d) Bronchial asthma; e) Pleuro-pulmonary and laryngeal neoplasms
4) Apparatus Genito-Urinary: Glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, nephrolithiasis; b) benign and malignant nephrosclerosis; c) Malignancies Kidney, Bladder and Pieloureterali; d) prostatic hypertrophy, carcinomas
5) Gastro-enteric apparatus, Liver and Biliary tract, Pancreas: Esophagus: hiatal hernia, varices, Oesophagitis, carcinoma; Stomach: gastritis, peptic ulcer, neoplasms; Intestine: Infarction, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticular disease, Celiac disease and malabsorption syndromes, polyps and adenomas, colorectal carcinoma; Liver: Viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Cholangiocarcinoma; Biliary Tract: Jaundice, Cholangitis, cholecystitis, Lithiasis. Pancreas: acute and chronic pancreatitis, diabetes.
6) Endocrine System: Pituitary: hyperpituitarism, hypopituitarism; Thyroid: thyroiditis, goiter, Graves' disease, carcinomas; Parathyroid: Primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary and tertiary; Adrenal gland: Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, M. Addison, Neoplasms
7) Locomotor apparatus: Bone: M. Paget, fibrous dysplasia, M. Recklingausen; Osteomyelitis; Joints and Tendons: Arthro-synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis
8) Nervous system: meningitis, brain abscess, encephalitis; b) infarction, apoplectic hemorrhage, aneurysms; c) M. Alzheimer, M. Parkinson, Multiple Sclerosis
9) Skin: nevi and melanomas; Precancerous, Basal and squamous cell carcinoma
III a) Systemic Odontostomatologic Pathology
1) abnormalities of development and hereditary keratosis: Fordyce's spots, lymphoepithelial cysts, hemifacial hypertrophy, congenital epulis, leukoedema, white sponge nevus, congenital Pachyonychia, Tylosis, benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis hereditary and congenita.
2) Stomatitis: general and classification, topographical variety, etiological, pathogenetic and morphological pictures
3) Locations oral dermatological diseases: Lichen planus, lupus erythematosus
4) ulceration and vesiculobullous diseases: classification, traumatic ulcers, recurrent aphthous stomati
Robbins e Cotran - Le basi patologiche delle malattie, 8th Edition, Elsevier ed.
Vol. 1 Patologia generale - Vol. 2 Malattie degli organi e degli apparati
J.V. Soames, J.C. Southam: Patologia Orale, EMSI editore
Patologia orale. Correlazioni clinico-patologiche
Richard C. Jordan,Joseph A. Regezi,James J. Sciubba
Editore: Delfino Antonio Editore
Patologia orale. Correlazioni cliniche e patologiche
Roderick A. Cawson
Antonio Delfino Editore
Different macro-microscopic lesions will be shown to the students simultaneously checking the ongoing Knowledge and the models of reasoning shown during the course
Assessment methods and criteria