# APPLIED PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course of Physics has been designed to convey knowledge and understanding of basic physics principles and their application in practice. The topics are geared to concrete analysis and research problems.

The course will provide the necessary tools to address issues of increasing complexity preparatory to other major disciplines of the degree course, such as Chemistry, Biology,

Physiology, Biochemistry, etc.. , which are based on physical phenomenology.

The course will also provide the conceptual basis for understanding a number of major technologies that with increasing frequency are used in medicine, such as: centrifuges, endoscopes, microscopes, transducers for ultrasound equipment, laser systems, radiology equipment and NMR, radiation detectors, etc. In this sense, the module also aims to develop the students' attitude towards independent study and continuing education on the application of physical techniques to diagnosis and therapy in medicine.

As its final, but perhaps most important, goal, the course has been designed to stimulate students to become more familiar with certain common concepts, that are not always sufficiently explained in previous study, such as: mechanical action between bodies in contact, exertion

and energy in action, dynamic aspects resulting from elastic force and impact, friction and thermal and thermodynamic aspects, static and dynamic properties of gaseous and liquid fluids, light and its manifestations, including in relation to the structure of the eye and its physical defects, fundamentals of electrical, magnetic and nuclear phenomena, the laws that govern potential and current, electromagnetic and nuclear radiation, detection and control.

The course of Applied Physics has been designed to convey knowledge and understanding of basic physics principles, providing an introductory basis for other major degree fields including Chemistry, Biology, Physiology, Biochemistry, etc., that rely on the physical phenomenology on make frequent use of it.

The course will also provide the conceptual basis for understanding a number of major technologies that with increasing frequency are used in medicine, such as: centrifuges, endoscopes, microscopes, transducers for ultrasound equipment, laser systems, radiology equipment and NMR, radiation detectors, etc. In this sense, the module also aims to develop the students' attitude towards independent study and continuing education on the application of physical techniques to their professional expertise.

As its final, but perhaps most important, goal, the course has been designed to stimulate students to become more familiar with certain common concepts, that are not always sufficiently explained in previous studies, such as: mechanical action between bodies in contact, exertion and energy in action, dynamic aspects resulting from elastic force and impact, friction and thermal and thermodynamic aspects, static and dynamic properties of gaseous and liquid fluids, light and its manifestations, also in relation to the structure of the eye and its physical defects, fundamentals of electrical, magnetic and nuclear phenomena, the laws that govern potential and current, electromagnetic and nuclear radiation, perturbations induced in means passed through and aspects of detection and control.

## Course contents summary

The course of Physics will deal with the most important aspects

of basic physics, from the definition of the main physical quantities and

measure systems up to the more complex content that are the basis of

diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy.

The course will cover the fundamental principles of mechanics, fluid

dynamics, electromagnetism, thermology, waves and optics.

Applications and consequences on human body physiology and medicine

will be stressed. In particular, deeper insights will be provided into

biomechanics, blood circulation, the use of radiations in diagnosis and

therapy.

The first part of the module of Physics will deal with

the definition of physical quantities and measure systems and units.

The module will then tackle the fundamental principles of mechanics,

fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, thermology, waves and optics.

Applications and consequences on human body physiology and medicine

will be stressed. In particular, deeper insights will be provided into

biomechanics, blood circulation, the use of radiations in diagnosis and

therapy, the nature of light and its propagation, with regard to vision and its defects.

## Course contents

Physical quantitites and their measurement: Measurement of a physical

quantity - Dimensions and units – Errors - Mean value - Standard

deviation and sampling approximation -Vector quantities.

- Fundamentals of dynamics: Principles of dynamics - Energy, work and

power - Weight force - Theorem of the kinetic energy - Conservative force

fields - Potential energy - Conservation of mechanical energy - Center of

mass and its properties - Conservation of the quantity of motion -

Moment of force - Overview of rigid body motion - Levers and the human

body – Balance - Elastic phenomena, Hooke’s law and elasticity modules -

Flexure and torsion - Elasticity of blood vessels and bones.

- Waves and acoustics: Wave motion, wave equation and characteristic

parameters - Interference and beats - Stationary waves - Resonance -

Diffraction and Huyghens principle - Sound and its characteristics -

Intensity, sensation, Weber-Fechner law - Doppler effect - Ultrasound and

its application in the biomedical field.

- Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics: Pressure, Pascal and Archimedes -

Atmospheric pressure and Torricelli’s barometer - Arterial pressure and

its measurement - Surface tension and Laplace’s formula - Capillarity and

Jurin’s law - Gaseous embolism - Pipe flow capacity - Ideal liquid and

Bernouilli’s theorem -Implications for blood flow - Real liquids and

viscosity - Laminar motion and Poiseuille’s theorem - Hydraulic resistance

- Stokes’ equation and sedimentation speed - Turbulent regime and

Reynolds number - Overview of cardiac work.

- Thermology and thermodynamics: Thermal dilation -Temperature and

heat - Laws of gas and absolute temperature - Equation of state of ideal

gases and approximation for real gases - Overview of the kinetic theory

of gases - Specific heats –Change of state and latent heat - Heat

propagation mechanisms -First and second principle of thermodynamics -

Thermal machines and efficiency - Entropy and disorder.

- Optics: Reflection and refraction - Total reflection and optical fiber -

Optical system, focus and dioptric power - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses,

mirrors and image construction - Compound microscope - Resolution

strength - The eye as a dioptric system - Principal ametropies of the eye

and their correction using lenses - Wave theory of light - Laser light.

- Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electrical charges and

Coulomb’s law - Electrical field - Work of the electrical field and

electrostatic potential - Dipolar field - Overview of muscle fiber and

electrocardiogram - Gauss’s theorem and its applications - Faraday cage -

Electrical capacity and capacitor - Current intensity - Overview of the

electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semiconductors

- Ohm’s law - Series and parallel resistors – Electromotive

force - Thermal effect of current - Electrical conduction in liquids - Passing

of current in the human body -Thermoionic and photoelectric effects -

Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets - Biot-Savart law -

Ampere’s theorem of circulation - Solenoid - Electromagnetic induction -

Self-induction – Alternating voltage and current - Impedance -

Electromagnetic waves.

- Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus - Quantum numbers,

electronic orbitals and transitions - Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta,

gamma radiation - Law of radioactive decay and half-life - Radiation

detection - Biomedical applications of radioisotopes - X-rays (production,

properties and absorption mechanisms in the matter) - Radiological

image - Overview of computerised axial tomography (CAT) and

radiofrequency (NMR) imaging techniques, PET and SPECT - Overview of radiation safety.

Physical quantities and their measurement. Units. Dimensional analysis. Errors. Mean value. Standard deviation and sampling approximation. Vector algebra.

Fundamentals of dynamics: Principles of dynamics. Energy, work and power. Weight force. Kinetic energy. Conservative force fields. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Center of mass and its properties. Conservation of momentum. Overview of problems of impact. Torque and angular momentum. Overview of rigid body motion. Levers and the human body. Conservation of angular momentum. Elastic phenomena, Hooke’s law and elasticity modules. Elasticity of blood vessels and bone.

Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics: Hydrostatic pressure. Pascal's principle. Atmospheric pressure and Torricelli’s barometer. Surface tension and Laplace’s equation. Capillarity and Jurin’s law. Gaseous embolism. Pipeflow capacity. Ideal liquid and Bernouilli’s theorem. Implications for blood flow. Real liquids and viscosity. Laminar motion and Poiseuille’s theorem. Hydraulic resistance. Implications for hypertensive individuals or those under stress. Stokes’ equation and sedimentation. Turbulent flow and Reynolds number. Non-Newtonian fluids. Overview of cardiac work.

Thermology and thermodynamics: Temperature and heat. Laws of gases and absolute temperature. Equation of the status of perfect gases and approximation for real gases. Overview of the kinetic theory of gases. Specific heat. Phase transitions and latent heat. Heat propagation mechanisms. First and second principle of thermodynamics. Thermal engines and output. Entropy and disorder.

Waves and acoustics: Wave processes, wave equation and characteristic parameters. Interference and beats. Stationary waves. Resonance. Diffraction and Huyghens principle. Sound and its special characteristics. Doppler effect. Ultrasound and its application in the biomedical field.

Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electric charges and Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Electrostatic potential. Dipolar field. Overview of muscle fibre and electrocardiagram. Gauss’s law and its applications. Faraday's cage. Capacitors. Current intensity. Overview of the electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semi-conductors. Ohm’s laws. Series and parallel resistors. Electric drive power. Thermal effect of current. Electrical conduction in liquids. Thermoionic and photoelectric effect. Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets. Biot-Savart Law. Ampere’s theorem of circulation. Solenoid. Electromagnetic induction. Self-induction. Voltage and alternating current. Impedance. Electromagnetic waves.

Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus. Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta, gamma radiation. Law of radioactive decay and half-life. Radiation detection. Biomedical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays (production, properties and mechanisms of absorption into matter) Overview of TC, NMR, PET. Overview of radiation safety.

## Recommended readings

Classroom notes.

Bersani, Bettati, Biagi, Capozzi, Feroci, Lepore, Mita, Ortalli, Roberti,

Viglino, Vitturi: Fisica biomedica, Ed. Piccin Nuova Libraria (Padova).

Celasco: Lineamenti di Fisica Medica, Ed. E.C.I.G. (Genova).

Scannicchio: Fisica Biomedica, Ed. EdiSES (Napoli).

A. Giambattista - B. McCarthy Richardson- R. Richardson : Fisica generale - Principi e applicazioni - McGraw Hill

D.C.Giancoli : Fisica - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

J.S. Walker : Fondamenti di Fisica - Ed. Pearson

## Teaching methods

During classroom lectures, the topics contained in the program of the

module will be illustrated and commented. Emphasis will be posed on the

applications to biology and medicine of basic physics principles, with

examples of how such principles can lead to quantitative predictions on

physiological and pathological phenomena.

In selected cases, the demontration of basic physics principles will be

illustrated, with the aim to introduce the students to the practice of

logical thinking and experimental approach.

During classroom lectures, the topics contained in the program of the

module will be illustrated and commented. Emphasis will be posed on the

applications to biology and medicine of basic physics principles, with

examples of how such principles can lead to quantitative predictions on

physiological and pathological phenomena.

In selected cases, the demontration of basic physics principles will be

illustrated, with the aim to introduce the students to the practice of

logical thinking and experimental approach.

## Assessment methods and criteria

The achievement of the objectives of the module will be assessed through a written examination, mainly consisting in open questions on the topics of the course. This will allow to ascertain the knowledge and the understanding of both the theoretical bases and their consequences.

The written examination will include the resolution of problems, to assess the achievement of the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to a simulated biological or medical situation. All parts of the written exam will be equally weighted in the final evaluation.

The achievement of the objectives of the module will be assessed

through a written exam, mainly consisting in open questions on the

topics of the course. This will allow to ascertain the knowledge and the

understanding of both the theoretical bases and their consequences in

biology and medicine.

The written exam will include the resolution of problems, to assess the

achievement of the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to a

simulated biological or medical situation.

All parts of the written exam will be equally weighted in the final

evaluation.