OBSTETRICS AND GENERAL HYGIENE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student must acquire the knowledge of epidemiology and prophylaxis of infectious and non infectious diseases , the risk of infection during the pregnancy , the means of prevention. Lo student must know and understand the bases of embryology and physiology of the placenta and fetal adnexa; fecundation, mechanisms of contraception; twin and ectopic pregnancy; miscarriage .The student must know the useful elements to make a correct diagnosis of pregnancy, how to properly date the pregnancy and know emotional and physical changes which the woman will undergo in the three trimesters.
The student must know how to establish a proper relationship with the pregnant woman and how to support her during the pregnancy by providing appropriate counseling. He must know the basics to provide a correct assistance to the physiological pregnancy by the point of view of the guidelines provided by the Ministry of Health.
The student must also acquire knowledge of the fundamental aspects of nutrition:
-nutrients, foods, nutrition, with particular reference to pregnancy, as well as the dietary guidelines for some diseases of interest.
Course contents summary
Fundamental concepts of: embryology and physiology of pregnancy - the role of the obstetric in the three trimesters of pregnancy , preparation and childbirth assistance;-prevention of infectious and non infectious diseases ;-means and strategies of prevention; the levels of prevention; immune prophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis;-nutritional aspects and dietary guidelines for pregnant and breast-feeding woman
General epidemiology of infectious diseases
The sources of infection, modes of transmission.
Factors favoring the occurrence of infections.
Modes of occurrence of infections in the population
The objectives and methods of prevention.
The prevention of infections: discovery and inactivation of the sources of infection, interruption of transmission chains; increase resistance to infection
General principles of prevention of non-infectious diseases
Prevention of infections with blood
Prevention of infection in pregnancy
Hospital infections (notes). Drinking water - notes on the sources of supply, and the possibility of pollution,
Criteria for potability. Introduction to Health Education and Health Organization.
Gynecology and Obstetrics
Physiology of the placenta
Embryology of the placenta, of the amniotic fluid and of the fetal adnexa
Fecundation, menstruation, contraception (mechanisms)
Pregnancy: normal pregnancy, twin pregnancy-physiological signs of disease, - extra-uterine pregnancy; - vesicular mole
Obstetric sonogram (notes).
Obstetric - gynecological nursing
Antenatal care : general concepts of the global assistance, the needs of pregnant women, pregnancy diagnosis (signs of presumption, probability, confidence)
The datation of the pregnancy.
Characteristics of the three trimesters.
The relational role of the obstetric during the pregnancy.
Counseling in the three trimesters of pregnancy
Folder of pregnancy, the first visit: reception of pregnant women, the obstetric examination, medical history, inspection, palpation, auscultation, exploration, the speculum examination.
Vital signs during pregnancy.
Measurement of Symphysis Fundus
Patient’s Preparation for Natural Childbirth
Science and dietary techniques applied.
1.The nutrients: macro-and micronutrients.
2. Foods. Foods of higher nutritional interest.
3. The nutrition groups. Features
4. Requirements and dietary guidelines for pregnant women in the different trimesters of for breast-feeding woman
5. Treatment with diet in pathological conditions of pregnancy: diabetes
6. Differences between breast milk and cow's milk
7. The metabolic syndrome and diabetes: dietary approach
Igiene.Barbuti et altri
Edit. Monduzzi-III Edizione(2011)
Linee guida Ministero della salute sulla gravidanza fisiologica
Pescetto, De Cecco, Pecorari -Ostetricia- vol. 1
Linee guida “take reference to INRAN : www.inran.it
2-Nutrizione Clinica. Di Magnati G. RussoC e DAZZI D., Edito da EdiSES di Napoli, 1987.
3. “Manuale di Nutrizione Applicata” Riccardi ed. Sorbona
4.” La nutrizione del bambino sano Faldella Pensiero Scientifico
Appunti del docente
.Frontal lessons with the use of visual supports, discussion with students and guided exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral exam and written test