MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to give to the students the knowledge about the basics of etiologic agents of infectious diseases (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses), with particular reference to the diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology.
Course contents summary
Introduction to microbiology and virology. The general characters of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Microbial pathogenicity. Morphological and structural features of viruses. Viral pathogenicity. Common infectious diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
Bacteriology. General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Notes on bacterial metabolism and reproduction. Host-bacteria interactions. Normal flora of humans. Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and endotoxins). Notes on the main antibacterial drugs and in vitro susceptibility testing. Main bacteria responsible for infectious diseases in humans, with particular reference to to the diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology (gonorrhea, syphilis, infection caused by group B streptococci).
Mycology. General characteristics of fungi. Fungal cell and colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi. Urogenital infections caused by species of the genus Candida.
Parasitology. General characteristics of protozoa; host-parasite interactions; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Protozoan parasites of blood and tissues: Toxoplasma gondii; protozoan parasites of the uro-genital tract: Trichomonas vaginalis.
Virology. Main biological, morphological and structural characteristics of viruses. The phases of viral infection. Infections caused by the major sexually and mother-to-child transmitted viruses: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus(HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), herpetic viruses (Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex viruses, type 1 and type 2).
Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases: direct methods (demonstration in biological samples of etiologic agents and/or their components); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Collection of biological samples for the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections.
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. No interim evaluation is programmed. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.
Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, a grade will be attributed according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient), which will contribute to the final grade.