DRUGS AND MEDICINES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding: The student must demonstrate knowledge of the physico-chemical bases that regulate the functioning of nuclear and membrane receptors; to understand the mechanisms through which small molecules activate or block nuclear or membrane receptors.
The objective of the module is to provide general knowledge on the role of the formulation in the conservation, stability, release and bioavailability of active ingredients, with particular attention to biotechnology medicines.
Organic Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology, Anatomy
Course contents summary
Integrated course, consisting of the combination of two modules: "Molecular basis of drug action" and "Formulation and release of biotechnological drugs". The content of the first module will provide a drug review: what is and how it works with their macromolecular partners; examples of classes of therapeutic agents will be treated.
The second module will open with an introductory lesson that will address the influence that the formulation (dosage form and process) has on releasing the active substance and its bioavailability, with particular attention to biotechnological drug issues. Finally, they will address the various traditional formulations, and innovative pharmaceutical forms and alternative routes of administration.
1) Drugs and drug targets: an overview
- what is a drug?
- drug targets
- intermolecular bonding forces
2) Receptors: structure and function
3) Enzymes as drug targets
4) Receptors as drug targets
5) Drug Absorption
6) Drug distribution
7) Metabolism of drugs
8) Elimination of drugs
9) Antibacterial agents
10) Cholinergic, anticholinergic and anticholinesterase drugs
11) Antipsychotic drugs
12) Anti-Parkinson Drugs
13) Drugs for anxiety disorders, sedatives, hypnotics
14) Opioid analgesics
An introductory lesson aims to clarify the influence that the formulation (dosage form and process) has on releasing the active ingredient and its bioavailability, with particular attention to biotechnological drug issues. The course takes place following the following program:
GENERAL TOPICS: Bioavailability, Biofarmaceutics, Polymers, Diffusion
CONVENTIONAL FORMULATIONS: solutions, emulsions, suspension, colloidal dispersions, liquids for oral and parenteral routes, semisolid formulations, powders, tablets, capsules
INNOVATIVE FORMULATIONS and CONTROLLED RELEASE: Reservoirs and matrices, osmotic systems, gastroretentive systems, colon delivery, mucoadhesion, microparticles, nanoparticles, liposomes, hydrogels, oral administration of biotech drugs
W.O. FOYE:"Principi di Chimica Farmaceutica", Piccin.
G.L. PATRICK:"Introduzione alla Chimica Farmaceutica", EdiSES.
WILSON&GISVOLD:"Chimica Farmaceutica", Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
Textbook: "Principi di tecnologie farmaceutiche", P. Colombo, P.L. Catellani, A. Gazzaniga, E. Menegatti, E. Vidale, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (Ed. 2004)
Through oral lessons will be presented and discussed matters relating to the course content.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course is done through oral examination. For the determination of the mark the following descriptors are adopted:
• knowledge and understanding of the subjects (up to 12/30);
• ability to apply the knowledge gained mastery of method (up to 12/30);
• ability to communicate their knowledge and skills in verbal form through the appropriate use of a language of their own discipline (up to 6/30).
Lectures are conducted with the aid of slides whose contents are available to students. The teaching material available online is not a replacement but a supplementary of reference texts, and a guide to a better understanding of the topics to be studied.