FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide students with the fundamental knowledge of the laws of
physics, their applications to describe and interpret the measurement techniques that will be
used in the laboratories.
The purpose is to transfer knowledge and facilitate understanding at a
level that, using advanced and differentiated texts, allows to approach the
main themes of Physics applied to Cultural Heritage and thus provide the basic skills for
solving different problems that require a physical approach. This will allow interpreting
results and communicating in an understandable and appropriate way, developing autonomous
learning skills necessary for further investigation.
Mathematics and chemistry at an elementary level.
Course contents summary
The course is basically divided into four parts: the first devoted to the traditional
Mechanics and to Electromagnetism, the second part to the waves and to an introduction to quantum physics,
the third to the atomic and molecular structure, and the last to the nuclei and radioactivity.
The essential concepts of Newtonian mechanics are recalled illustrating the conservation principles of energy, momentum and angular momentum, important for the understanding of Modern Physics. Electric and magnetic fields and Maxwell's equations are revisited with particular attention to the concept of potential and to the dipole moments. Electromagnetic waves are presented with emphasis on interference and diffraction. "Modern Physics" is then introduced: quantization, energy levels and states of atoms and molecules with a series of introductory examples and applications to spectroscopy. Then are illustrated the concepts related to atomic nuclei and to the phenomena of radioactivity.
Laws of mechanics
Conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum -
Waves - Interference and Diffraction -
Magnetism and magnetic induction -
Maxwell equations -
Electromagnetic waves -
Photons and quantization -
Waves and particles -
Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics -
The structure of atoms -
Crystals and symmetries -
Nuclei, nuclear reactions -
Introduction to the spectroscopic techniques
Notes prepared by the teacher are posted on the web
Traditional lecture with numerous exercises, aimed at ARCHAEOMETRIC applications.
During the lectures applications
on the basis of simple physical principles will be constantly invoked, stimulating the ability to synthesize and to simplify the problems and suggesting analogies and correspondences to identify
the laws of Classical and Modern Physics applied in different areas.
Assessment methods and criteria
The level of learning is continuously evaluated with
involvement of the students in exercises and questions.
At the end of the course a simple written multiple choice test and an oral interview are scheduled.
In the written test,
the basic computing ability (using
correctly significant digits and measurement units) will be checked.
The oral test is to assess the understanding of the laws, the
connections between topics, the correlation between apparently
different situations. The test intends to evaluate the ability to apply the knowledge acquired during the course, obviously not through simple mnemonic statements.
It also aims to establish the correctness and precision of the language used not only by
enunciation of the laws but also in the description of phenomena.
In addition to the evaluation of an acceptable level of knowledge of General and Modern Physics the test will evaluate the ability to independently develop hints for the investigation of problems, to distinguish
the essential from negligible.