PHYSIOPATHOLOGY AND CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Upon the successful completion of the course, the student will:
- understand causes and mechanisms underlying the main pathologic processes at cell, tissue and organism levels
- apply the acquired knowledge to the comprehension of the pathophysiological aspects of human disease
- correlate ethiology and pathogenesis with structural/functional alterations thus providing ration bases for the use of laboratory techniques
- demonstrate, through the mature use of the knowledge acquired and an proper technical language, communication and learning skills
Adequate bases of cell biology, histology, anatomy, biochemistry, immunology, and physiology are required.
Course contents summary
The main subjects of the course are:
- Injury and adaptive mechanisms of cells and tissues
- Tissue responses to injury: Inflammation, Hemostasis, Repair
- Pathophysiology of endocrine glands and metabolism
For each group of subjects, information about the main relevant laboratory techniques will be also provided.
1) Cell injury ed adaptation:
- oxidative stress and the cell response
- intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- ER stress and UPR
- Ischemic-hypoxic stress and the cell response
- Cell death: classification (accidental, regulated, programmed) and modalities (necrosis, apoptosis, other)
- Methods for the study of cell damage and cell death
- Adaptations: atrophy, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia
2) Tissue responses to injury:
- Acute inflammation: events, cells, mediators
- Chronic inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis
- Defects of the inflammatory response
- Excessive inflammatory responses: septic shock and SIRS
- Autoinflammatory diseases
- Systemic events in inflammation
- The laboratory in inflammation
- Phases of the hemostatic response
- Hemorrhagic disease and DIC
- The laboratory in the study of hemostasis
- Tissue repair and its disorders
3) Disorders of the immune response:
- Laboratory techniques in clinical immunology
- Pathophysiology of the diabetic syndrome
- The laboratory in diabetes
- Pathopgysiology of iron homeostasis
- Pathophysiology of calcium and phosphorus
- Endocrine pathophysiology
- Vinay, Abbas, Aster – Fondamenti di patologia e fisiopatologia. Elsevier-Masson, 2013
It is possible that an up-dated edition will be published.
The ninth edition of the "Robbins" textbook is obviously fully adequate.
References on specific subjects will be provided during lessons.
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be made availble to the students at the beginning of the Course with the Elly platform. Slides will be up-dated at the end of the Course. This material is an essential, but by no means exhaustive, support for the students.
Lessons will provide the main conceptual frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the subject.
Specific arguments will be treated also with the cooperation of specialists in seminars in Italian or English, with particular reference to the laboratory techniques used for the study/characterization of specific pathologic processes.
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim summative assessment will be performed. However, it is possible that diagnostic or valutative assessments will be performed during the course.
The final summative assessment will consist in an oral examination.
Questions/student: 2 (from two different examiners, one question/examiner)
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question or to define correctly the subject, or very serious mistakes indicative of severe knowledge gaps, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in marks:
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding (some mistakes). Average capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding but with several mistakes. Sufficient capability of applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-23/30.
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident and severe pitfalls). Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual votes.