PHYSICS LABORATORY 2 (UNIT 2)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Topics covered in the course are presented by emphasizing the phenomenological aspects of geometrical optics, physical optics and some aspects of electromagnetism, giving priority to issues inherent in the experimental verification of the physical laws discussed. It is trying to improve and stimulate
(A) learning and deepening of concepts of optics and electromagnetism
(B) acquisition of manual skills in the use of electronics and optics
(C) ability to observe and recognize the phenomena.
The assessment aims to ascertain the degree of theoretical knowledge and understanding of the topics (knowledge and understanding), but also the ability to set the experimental verification of a physical phenomenon (Applying knowledge and understanding), the ability to implement it independently and critically the proposed experiments and clearly discuss them (Independent judgment and Communication skills).
Attendance of the courses: Physics Laboratory 1 and the first modulus of Physics Laboratory 2.
Course contents summary
Electromagnetism and optics experiments.
• Electronic noise (specific topic of the course). Noise sources. Spectrum of noise and its measure. Noise control and possible sources of systematic errors.
• The Faraday law. Summaries of theory: magnetic field generated by a loop, induced current; the Earth's magnetic field. Presentation of experiences: measurement of induced current in a loop, measurement of the magnetic field of a loop, of the local terrestrial magnetic field, of the horizontal component.
• Response to the electric field. Summaries of theory: electrical conductivity and Hall effect. Measurement of Hall coefficient and electronic mobility. The gaussmeter. Presentation of experiences: measure of resistivity and Hall coefficient in a material.
• Summaries of theory on electromagnetic waves and properties.
• Light sources (specific topic of the course): operating principle (incandescent, discharge lamps, LASER) and the properties of the emitted radiation.
• Light detectors and operating principle (specific topic of the course): thermal and photonic detectors, photodiodes, photo tubes, photomultipliers, bolometers.
• Geometric optics (specific topic of the course). Snell's laws. Reflection-refractive images from flat surfaces and curves. Spherical mirror and spherical diopter. Lenses, lens systems, aberrations. Dispersion. Presentation of experiences: measurement of the focal length of reflective and refractive centered optical systems, estimation of the transverse magnification. Calibration of a prism spectrometer.
• Polarization and polarization methods: summaries of theory. Dichroic and birefringent films. Presentation of experiences: Verification of Malus Law, determination of Brewster's angle of a material and derivation of the refractive index.
• Physical optics. Summaries of theory: spatial and temporal coherence. Interference and diffraction. Interference from single and multiple slit. Diffraction grating. Transmission and reflection diffraction gratings. Presentation of experiences: double-slit interference, Michelson interferometer, reflection and transmission pattern characterization, acquisition of the emission spectrum of incandescent and discharge lamps by a diffraction-grating spectrometer. Colored filters.
• Wavelength measurement methods (specific topic of the course): comparison of dispersive and interferential systems. Solving power and dispersing power. Critical analysis of the possibility of solving the doublet of sodium through the experimental sets used in the couse.
Lectures will include a brief introduction on the relevant theory of optics and electromagnetism followed by experiments of laboratory, discussion of experimental results and in some cases discussion of written exercises. Each experiment will be accompanied by written reports.
Lecture notes for the lesson topics, lab-guide sheets for experiments, and the detailed calendar of activities are provided by the teacher.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam requires the preliminary submission of the reports on the experiences made during the course and consists of an individual practice test, a brief written text (with practical-application questions with open-answer) and an oral test.
The oral test expects the discussion of a few topics proposed in the text, of issues dealed in the course (in particular the specific topics of the cource), with particular attention to the subject matter of the practice test.
Skill of critical comment on experiment relationships are required.
The final evaluation is based on: the experimental relationships [20%]; the practical test carried out (to test the autonomy in the execution of an experiment) [20%]; knowledge, critical sense and appropriate scientific language shown in the oral text (and brief writtten text) [60%].
To pass the exam the student must have participated in 80% of the experiences; he must have delivered the reports, partecipated in the mentioned tests, showing, in particular, sufficient understanding of the topics during the oral exam.