DOMESTIC ANIMALS ANATOMY, EMBRIOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is aimed at teaching knowledge and understanding of the basics of embryo-foetal development, morphology and structural organization of cells, tissues and organs of animals of zootechnical interest. The aim is to give a good grounding and specific technical-pratical knowledge useful to make comparisons and controls, to help the resolution of diagnostic problems and to study with profit matters of physiology, patholgy, reproduction, welfare and breeding conditions of animals, zootechny and inspection.
Specific knowledge provided by the entrance test or alternatively, recovery of educational debt in Biology
Course contents summary
The course consists of several topics.
- The first part of the course is dedicated to cytology, and recalls knowledge about the structure of the eukaryotic cell.
- The second part gives knowledge of general embryology addressing topics ranging from gametogenesis to the formation of the three germ layers. Moreover provides knowledge in relation to fetal membranes, placentation, fetal circulation and related changes at birth in farm animals.
- The third part of the course provides knowledge in relation to the morphology and structural and functional characteristics of Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscular tissue, Nervous tissue. Moreover it provides basic concepts on the development and the anatomy of the nervous system. The techniques and equipment necessary for the preparation and reading of histological specimens are also described.
- The fourth part of the course gives basic concepts on anatomy, on the terminology to be used, definition of the main parts of animal body, organogenesis and moprho-structural aspects of the locomotor apparatus.
- In the second semester, the course gives knowledge regarding the organogenesis, macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy of endocrine organs, digestive tract of monogastric and ruminants, the uro-genital male and female apparatus, cardiovascular apparatus, respiratory apparatus, common integument.
In addition to the lectures that are held in the classroom, are provided educational practices activities of histology and microscopic and macroscopic anatom
Morpho-structural aspects of eukaryotic cells
Processes of embryonic development of farm animals
- Gametogenesis - Early stages of embryonic development - Generalities on fetal membranes
morphology - structural and ultrastructural characteristics of animal tissues
- Epithelial tissues
• Glandular epithelia
• specialized epithelia
- Connective tissues
• Connective tissues proper and specialized connective tissues
- Muscle tissue
• Smooth muscle
• striated skeletal muscle tissue
• cardiac striated muscle
- Nervous tissue
General anatomical terminology and main parts of the body.
General organization of the organs
• Organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of bone and contractile tissues
• Organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of the alimentary canal and glands in monogastric and ruminant
• Organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of nose, nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs and pleura
• organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of male and female uro-genital organs
• Kidneys and urinary tract
• gonads and genital tract
• Heart and blood circulatory system: morpho-structural aspects, fetal circulation and changes in the circulation after birth
• Lymph-vascular system
Nervous system: organogenesis and general organization of the nervous system
• Somatic Nervous System
• Autonomic Nervous System
Endocrine glands: organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects
Common Integument: general aspects
• morphological and structural aspects of udder and nails
preparation and reading of histological samples
Histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques
Observation, description and dissection of corpses, major systems an
BORTOLAMI R., CALLEGARI E., CLAVENZANI P., BEGHELLI V., Anatomia e fisiologia degli animali domestici, Edagricole, Bologna
DYCE K.M., SACK W.O., WENSING C.J:G: Testodi Anatomia Veterinaria,
Delfino Editore Roma.
GETTY R., Anatomia degli animali domestici di Sisson e Grossman, Piccin, Padova
PELAGALLI G.V., BOTTE V., Anatomia veterinaria sistematica e
comparata, Vol. 1, 2, Edi Ermes, Milano
LIEBICH H.G. Istologia e anatomia microscopica dei mammiferi domestici
e degli uccelli. Testo-Atlante, Ed. Piccin, Padova
BANKS W.J., Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica Veterinaria, Ed. Piccin,
DELLMAN H.D., BROWN E.M., Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica
Veterinaria, Ed. Grasso, Bologna
JUNQUEIRA J.C., CARNEIRO J Compendio di Istologia, Ed. Piccin, Padova
BARBIERI M. , CARINCI P., Embriologia, terza edizione. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
PELAGALLI V.G. , CASTALDO L., LUCINI C. , PATRUNO M. , SCOCCO P., Embriologia. Morfogenesi e Anomalie dello sviluppo. Ed. Idelson-Gnocchi, Napoli
In addition to the reference books and links listed above, the slides shown during the lectures are available to students in the special sites dedicated to them, accessible through identification and password.
The didactic activity, corresponding to a total of 6 CFU (1st semester = 3 CFU, 2nd semester = 3 CFU), pertaining to the course of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology of Domestic Animals, is divided into 35 hours of lectures plus 8 hours of teaching practice that take place in the classroom, and 8 hours of teaching practice that take place in the gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy room. Attendance is compulsory only for practical activity.
The lectures, conducted over two semesters will include:
- In the first semester, topics of cytology, embryology, histology, general knowledge about anatomy, terminology to be used, definition of the main animal body parts, topics of anatomy of the locomotor system.
- In the second semester, the lectures will provide knowledge regarding organogenesis and macro-and microscopic anatomy of endocrine organs, digestive tract of monogastric and ruminants, uro-genital male and female apparatus, cardiovascular apparatus, respiratory apparatus and common integument. During the lectures, besides slides, students will also have the opportunity to directly observe some anatomical specimens and some models (which will be brought from the anatomical museum to the classroom). At the end of the second semester theoretical-practical lessons will be carried out, during which the student will practice in the recognition of the morphology and structure of tissues and organs with an optical microscope or in the dissection of corpses, appartuses or organs. The teaching practice will require the division of students into groups whose number depends on the capacity of the classrooms.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of an oral examination in which the student must answer at least one question on each part of the course. Questions about the contents of the course will allow to determine whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content and the ability to apply the acquired knowledge. The student at the end of the course, will have to prove the ability - to correlate morphology, structure and functions, at the subcellular, cellular, tissutal and anatomical level - to apply the knowledge to the recognition of the various tissues and organs by the analysis of microscopic images and by the observation of anatomical preparations or models -to identify similarities and differences between the sexes and between species, both in terms of the main features of the organs and in terms of the dynamics of development -to interpret the changes, after birth, of the fetal circulation and the dynamics of the formation of the fetal membranes and placentation in farm animals.
It is possible, for students who want to do that, to make oral tests in progress, during the period of suspension of lessons between the first and second semester, on some parts of the program discussed in class during the course of the first semester.
Students can choose to be questioned on topics concerning the parts of "cytology, embryology and histology" (CEI) or arguments concerning the parts of "anatomical terminology, parts of animal body, osteology, arthrology and miology" (OAM), or all of these issues simultaneously. For each block (CEI, OAM) will be assigned a vote. Another vote will be assigned when they will face the final part of the exam. This part (ANAT) can only be sustained after the end of the second semester, and will cover the topics treated in the lessons of the second semester.
Votes shall be cast out of thirty. Each part of the exam (CEI, OAM, ANAT) must be passed with a mark of at least 18, otherwise the student will repeat the question on the part where he did not get enough.
The final grade will be the average of the marks obtained in the three parts