HYGIENIC CONTROL TECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH FOOD
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide students with a scientific approach and legislative issues in the field of food hygiene, with special reference to microbial and viral contamination of foods of animal origin as well as skills relating to the application of rules of hygiene as a preventive measure in the context of food poisoning (I and II descriptors of Dublin). They also include concepts for prevention during production, marketing and preservation of foods susceptible to bacterial and viral contamination. The production technologies of drinking milk, the conditions for the marketing of raw milk and related National and European legislation are treated with the aim of providing students with the skills needed to draw up HACCP plans as part of food production (III, IV and V descriptors of Dublin). During the laboratory exercises ISO official methods for detecting microorganisms of particular importance to hygiene and food safety (Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae)are applied.
The aim of the curse is also to provide students with a scientific approach to the hygiene problems in the food area, regarding to the microbial contamination of food of animal origin and the application of hygiene regulations in the national and European legislation in force. Students deepen the aspects concerning some toxinfections and their prevention during the production, retail and preservation stages of food of animal origin. Traditional and innovative technologies on the food conservation.
Course contents summary
The contamination of foods of animal origin.
Alterations of food of animal origin: meat products, milk, eggs and fish products.
Food poisoning: factors conditioning the food-borne diseases (salmonellosis, botulism, vibriosis).
Food contamineted by helminth parasites: toxoplasmosis, trichinosis (EC Regulation 2075/2005), cysticercosis, botriocefalosi, opistorchidosi, anisakiasis.
Food contaminated by protozoa parasites: cryptosporidiosis, amebiasis, giardiasis.
Processing technologies and food storage:
pasteurization, appertisation, sterilization, refrigeration and freezing, high hydrostatic pressure, drying and smoking, ionizing radiation, the use of chemical compounds (nitrites-nitrates, polyphosphates, organic acids) and antibiotics, fermentation, mechanically separated meat and manufacturing technology meat products.
Food Law: "hygiene package" EC Regulation 2073/2005 and SS. MM.
Sampling, labeling and related legislation.
Factors of bacterial growth in foods. The microbial and viral contamination of food of animal origin. Surveillance of foodborne zoonoses at National and European level.
Food poisoning: campylobacteriosis, listeriosis, infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli (with particular reference to EHEC, STEC and EggEC pathotypes), yersiniosis, brucellosis, Cronobacter sakazakii infection, poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus.
Food poisoning: histamine poisoning.
Food-borne viral diseases: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus.
Health problems and trade problems in raw milk (Reg. 853/2005, State-Regions Agreement 25.01.2007, 10.12.2008 OM, DM 12.12.2012). Processing technologies of drinking milk: pasteurization, UHT, sterilization microfiltration. Law 169/1989. Legal indicators of heat treatment of milk. Drinking milk of high quality.
Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs: Reg 2073/2005 and subsequent amendments
General concepts on food hygiene.
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary contamination of food
The total bacterial count as a hygienic parameter of food.
The count of Enterobacteriaceae as a hygienic and technological parameter of food.
Risk factors related to food-borne diseases.
EC Directive 2003/99 ("Zoonosis Directive")
EC Regulation 2073/2005 and subsequent additions and modifications (Regulation on microbiological criteria applied to food products)
Food-borne zoonotic bacterial diseases: salmonellosis, listeriosis, campylobacteriosis, yersiniosis, Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), brucellosis, Staphylococcus aureus intoxication.
Cronobacter sakazakii infection.
Food-borne viral infections: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus, Poliovirus.
EC Regulation 853/2004: hygiene and health criteria of cow's milk for food use.
Sale of raw milk on the Italian territory: regulation and microbiological criteria.
High quality milk.
Thermal treatments of drinking milk: pasteurization, UHT treatment, sterilization. Microfiltration of drinking milk.
Characteristics of the different types of pasteurized and sterilized milk.
Legal enzymes and other parameters of heat treatment of drinking milk.
COLAVITA G.: Igiene e Tecnologie degli alimenti di origine animale. Le Point Veterinaire Italie, 2012, Milano
GALLI A., BERTOLDI A.: Igiene degli alimenti e HACCP in accordo con le nuove disposizioni del pacchetto igiene – Modelli applicativi. Ed. EPC Libri, 2006
FABBI M., MARONE P.: Trattato sulle infezioni e tossinfezioni alimentari. Ed. Selecta Medica, 2005, Pavia
SALVADORI DEL PRATO O.: Tecnologie del latte, Ed. Edagricole, 2005, Bologna
Aggiornamento normativo su: sostanzealimentari.it
RONDANELLI E.G., FABBI M., MARONE P.: Trattato sulle infezioni e tossinfezioni alimentari. Ed. Selecta Medica, 2005, Pavia
Frontal lessons and laboratory practical sessions
Assessment methods and criteria
Final examination, eventually integrated with oral exam.