Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the classes, the student who attended regularly lectures and exercices:
- knows about measurement errors and their effect on computations;
- knows how to roughly evaluate the order of magnitude of the results based on simple calculations;
- knows how to choose the best
combination of instruments and surveying techniques.
- knows how to plan and execute a survey, adjust the observations and analyse
- knows how to apply his knowledge and undestanding by solving
problems that refer to engineering practice.
- experienced his ability to carry out a practical survey with total station, with the adjustment of a small network, working in a team;
- experienced teamwork in a field survey as well as in numerical exercices in the design of a control network, including the ability to prepare a written report on both activities.
Calculus and geometry: derivatives, integrals, linearization of functions,
solution of non linear equations systems, matrix algebra.
Course contents summary
Surveys determine the position of points w.r.t. the Earth surface in a geodetic datum
with controlled accuracy. Surveys are needed to produce technical maps,
control displacements and deformation of large structures, vertical and
horizontal terrain movements, in road construction.
Geodesy and Reference systems.
Surveying basic concepts. Geoid and Ellipsoid. Reference systems,
coordinate systems, geodetic datum. Coordinate transformation and
datum transformation. Elements of geodesy.
Classification of map projections. Gauss projection and its use in geodetic
computations. UTM projection. Map production in Italy at different map
scales. Cadastral maps.
Error theory and statistical analysis of data.
Errors. Probability and random variables. Error propagation law. Error
ellipse. Inference: parametric tests and confidence interval. Least
squares adjustment of observations. Tests on standardized residuals and
significance of parameters. Measurement reliability.
Surveying instruments and surveying methods.
Total stations, levels; measurement of angles, distances, height
Geodetic and topographic networks.
Observation equations of horizontal and height networks. Network
simulation and adjustment. Georeferencing and co-registration of
System description. Pseudo-range and phase observations. Systematic
errors and modeling techniques. Accuracy of absolute, relative and
differential positioning in kinematic and static surveys. Network design.
ITRF and ETRF frames and trasformation to national datum and
orthometric heights. Networks of GPS permanent stations.
Application of Surveying to civil engineering
Use of maps in engineering projects. Road construction and building
construction surveys. Deformation and displacement monitoring in
building, bridges; landslides displacement control
B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins – Available in the
Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura.
Global positioning system : theory and practice
Alfred Leick - GPS satellite surveying
Course material (slides of the lectures, lecture notes on statistical data
analysis, exercices, etc.) can be found in TOPOGRAFIA, available online on the Uni e-learning platform. Registration
Lectures, numerical exercises, field surveys, execution of a practical
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination can be either by solving numerical exercises and
answering to written questions along the semester or by a oral examination with numerical exercices and discussion at
the end of the semester.
The written questions are in the form of “True or False” questions; they aim to
evaluate the knowledge base and count for about 20% of the total score.
Solving the exercices highlights knowledge, understanding and ability to
apply them; they count for about 60% of the score. Homework and
teamwork in the field survey highlight ability to apply knowledge and
understanding as well as communication skills; they each count for about 10%
of the score.
The oral examination starts with a simple exercise with computations;
passing this test is a prerequisite to continue the examination and
amounts to about 10% of the score. The questions are about theoretical,
methodological and practical aspect of surveys; each contribute to the
score by about 30%.