Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge of the fundamental properties of the biological macromolecules and of their structural- functional relationship. Knowledge of the processes of degradation and biosynthesis of the main classes of biomolecules, of the mechanisms of biological reaction and of their regulation, with particular attention to the application of the fundamentals of the chemistry (i.g. reversible reactions, redox potential, nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions, reaction rate). The student will be able to autonomously apply these knowledges to the study of others biological reactions and processes.
To have acquired the necessary knowledges in the basic courses in Physics, Mthematics
General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry
Course contents summary
Properties of biomolecules: nucleotides and nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids and proteins. Structure and function of proteins. Biological membranes. Enzyme catalysis and kinetics. Introduction to the metabolism: coenzymes, high energy bonds, redox potentials. Catabolism of glucose. Metabolism of glycogen. Gluconeogenesis. Tricarboxilic acids cicle and related rections. Electron transport, oxidative phosphorilation and respiratory control. Photosynthesis. Lipid metabolism: Fatty acids oxidation, keton bodies, fatty acids biosynthesi, cholesterol. Metabolim of aminoacids: transamination reactions, urea cycle, PLP-dependent reactions. Nucleotides metabolism: ex-novo purines and pyrimidine biosinthesis.
1. Basic concepts of biological chemistry.
2. Nucleotides and nucleic acids: structure and function.
3. Protein: general information on structure and function.
4. Amino acids: general structure and properties, classification, formulas, specific properties, acid-base properties.
5. The peptide bond: property and structure, primary structure of proteins.
6. Determination of the primary structure of proteins.
7. The secondary structure: the Ramachandran chart, helices, strands and beta sheets.
8. Fibrous proteins.
9. The tertiary structure: classification and methods for the determination.
10. Quaternary structure and symmetry.
11. Reversible bonding of a protein with a ligand: myoglobin and hemoglobin structure and function.
12. Lipids: fatty acids, triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, cell membranes, transport and membrane proteins.
13. Introduction to metabolism: metabolic pathways, metabolic flow, methods of studying metabolism.
14. Enzymatic catalysis: general properties of enzymes and classification, activation energy and the reaction coordinate, kinetic parameters of the enzymes their definitions and derivation.
15. Catalysis mechanisms, examples, mechanism of protease catalysis.
16. Enzymatic kinetics: mechanisms of enzymatic inhibition, allosteric regulation.
17. Cofactors and vitamins: general characteristics, functions, biological effects
18. High energy compounds: formulas and bioenegetics.
19. The glucose catabolism: glycolysis and its regulation, lactic fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.
20. Pyruvate dehydrogenase.
21. The citric acid cycle and its regulation.
22. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation: the respiratory chain, redox centers, cofactors, protein complexes and bioenegetics.
23. Oxidative phosphorylation: structure and function of ATP synthase
24. Catabolism of fatty acids: beta-oxidation, regulation
25. Carbohydrate anabolism: gluconeogenesis and pentose fostate route
26. Biosynthesis of lipids: fatty acids
Principi di Biochimica
Voet, Voet, Pratt, Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Assessment methods and criteria
multiple choice questions
1.5 hour time