Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims first to provide the student with the knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, of toxicity testing and of the nature and mechanisms of adverse and toxic effects of drugs and xenobiotics. Second, the course will allow the student to be able to apply the acquired competences to the practice of pharmacy.The course also aims to bring the student to the improvement of communication skills in the field of science.
Pharmacology and pharmacotherapy
Course contents summary
The first part of the course describes the basic concepts of toxicology, the mechanisms of toxicity and the most common experimental assays adopted in risk assessment. The second part of the course deals with the toxicological profile of the main classes of chemical agents and with the treatment of poisoning. Adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions are also discussed. Part of the course will address some organ toxicity as specific target of toxicological actions.
- General principles of toxicology and nature of toxic effects
- Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of Toxic Substances
- Biotransformation and metabolism of xenobiotics. Enzymatic systems.
- Dose/response curves
- General mechanism of action. Cellular homeostasis and toxicological alterations.
- Experimental toxicology and toxicological risk assessment
- Idiosyncrasies and allergic reactions
- Carcinogenesis and chemical mutagenesis
- Toxicology for pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, metals, solvents, IPA, vegetable and animal toxins
- Environmental toxicology: atmospheric pollutants, pollutants of water and soil
- Treatment of intoxication
- Xenobiotic interactions
- Food and nutritional toxicity: food additives and contaminants. Nutraceutical products.
- Toxicology of biotechnological products
- Renal toxicity
- Hepatic toxicity
Casarett & Doull’s “Tossicologia: fondamenti dell’azione delle sostanze tossiche” Ed. EMSI, Roma.
Goodman & Gilman’s “The pharmacological basis of therapeutics”
Paoletti, Nicosia, Clementi, Fumagalli “Tossicologia molecolare e cellulare” Ed. UTET, Torino.
Greim, Deml “Tossicologia” Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
Dolara “Tossicologia generale ed ambientale” Ed. Piccin, Padova.
Ghi “Tossicologia” Ed. Minerva Medica, Torino 2009
During classes, basic concepts of toxicology, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, methods of toxicity testing and risk assessment and the toxicological profile of the main groups of xenobiotics and drug-drug interactions will be described and discussed. During the lecture the Professor will use .ppt slides to illustrate the topics and the students will discuss specific topics based on the revision of the literature.
Assessment methods and criteria
The knowledge and understanding of the different areas of the course and the ability gained by the student to autonomously solve problems of toxicology will be ascertained through an oral exam, consisting of questions regarding subjects of both the first and the second part of the program.
The minimum threshold for overcoming the oral examination is the knowledge of the specific mechanisms of toxicity and their evaluation, the physiological reactions at the basis of toxic responses, the intervention methods and the pathophysiological conditions induced.
During the course students will be evaluated on their understanding skills and apply their scientific knowledge in the analysis of a scientific work in the field of toxicology.