Learning outcomes of the course unit
The module of Pharmaceutical Technology has the aim of providing the basic knowledge on formulation design, manufacturing and use of the most common dosage forms on the market.
In particular, the students will have to:
1) Identify the nature and function of excipients in a medicinal product (Knowledge and understanding);
2) Recognize the most common dosage forms and understand their administration routes (Knowledge and understanding);
3) Propose a formulation design and manufacturing approach for common dosage forms (Applying knowledge and understanding).
4) Evaluate advantages and limitations of a specific dosage form or administration route (Making judgements)
5) Present and illustrate a medicinal product using the appropriate technical language in a way that is at the same time simple and understandable by patients (Communication skills).
In order to access the exam of Pharmaceutical Technology/Galenic Preparations Laboratory the student has to have successfully passed the exams of Organic Chemistry and Physiology
Course contents summary
The Module of Pharmaceutical Technology will provide the fundamental concepts on the design of medicinal products, on the manufacturing of dosage forms and their use by patients.
The Module is divided in three parts:
- An introduction to biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics and administration routes;
- A general part dedicated to excipients and to basic pharmaceutical operations (milling, mixing, dissolution, filtration, sterilization and drying);
- A section dedicated to single dosage forms, to their manufacturing and quality control according to the current norm (Good Manufacturing Practice, GMP)
• Definition of drugs, dosage forms and medicines
• Pharmacopoeia and Formulary, GMP
• Biopharmaceutic and pharmacokinetics
• Administration routes
• Pharmaceutical excipients: types, classification and functions
• Pharmaceutical Operations: Milling; Mixing; Dissolution; Filtration; Sterilization; Drying.
• Pharmaceutical packaging
• Pharmaceutical products stability.
• Liquid dosage forms: solutions (drops, syrups and elixir), suspensions, emulsions;
• Granules, pellets;
• Semisolid dosage forms (ointments, creams, pastes, gels);
• Suppositories and pessaries;
• Parenteral dosage forms;
• Eye drops;
• Nasal dosage forms (drops, sparys, powders)
• Pulmonary dosage forms (nebulizers, pMDI, DPI)
• Herbal and homeopatic products
P. Colombo, P.L. catellani, A. Gazzaniga, E. Menegatti, E. Vidale: "Principi di Tecnologie Farmaceutiche", 2° Ed. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2015.
H. Ansel, S. Stockton: “Principi di calcolo farmaceutico” (A cura di: Gaia Colombo, Alessandra Rossi, Paola Russo, Fabio Sonvico) EDRA, 2017
Support Books (available at the Biblioteca del Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco):
F. Bettiol. Manuale delle preparazioni galeniche: arte del preparare e attrezzature per oltre 1500 formulazioni magistrali, officinali, fitoterapiche e omeopatiche, 4. Ed. Tecniche nuove, Milano, 2016
Farmacopea Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, XII Edizione, Istituto
Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma (2008);
European pharmacopoeia 9 Ed. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2016
Medicamenta : guida teorico pratica per sanitari, 6. Ed. Milano, Cooperativa Farmaceutica, 1976
Weekly lecture slides are made available on Elly website (http://elly.saf.unipr.it/).
The Pharmaceutical Technology module is carried out through a series of lectures, integrated with scientific papers, documents and online materials useful for the understanding and enrichment of the subject discussed in class.
All slides are made available online at the Elly website (elly.saf.unipr.it). Slides are a integral part of the studying material.
Students will be constantly reminded the appropriate technical language, exposed to real-life examples, invited to understand the underlying connections between different parts of the course and other subjects and will be stimulated to actively participate to the lectures with interactive discussions.
An attendance at least of 75% of lectures is required.
Assessment methods and criteria
The overall evaluation of the student preparation will be carried out in three distinct assessments:
1) Practical exam consisting in the compounding of a medication on the basis of a medical prescription. Through the marking of the compounded product appearance and of the technical report prepared, it will be evaluated the applying and understanding of the knowledge acquired by the student (mark out of 30; 15% of the overall mark);
2) Written exam, through the solving of pharmaceutical calculations will evaluate the applying and understanding of knowledge of students. The exam will consist in 5 pharmaceutical problems to be solved in 1 hour and a half. The exam is passed by solving at least 3 problems out of 5 (mark out of 30; 25% of the overall mark);
3) Oral exam consisting in three questions to assess:
- student knowledge and understanding of the subject studied
- student judgement and understanding of the interconnections between different aspects of the course
- student communication skills in technical and scientific language;
- student ability to apply and use the knowledge acquired with independent and competent reasoning.
The opportunity to start the discussion with students is given by submitting them a pharmaceutical product. Up to 2 points out of 30 will be awarded on communication skills of the student (mark out of 30; 60% of the overall mark).
The final mark is obtained by the weighed average of the marks of the single assessments.
Students can register online for the exam using portal ESSE3 (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do) in the sessions available on the official exams calendar of the Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco.
Exams results are announced at the end of the oral exam and are availale online at ESSE3 portal (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do) within one week from the exam date.