ELEMENTS OF NORMAL HUMAN ANATOMY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide students with the tools and theoretical concepts for the study of the morpho-functional organization of the human body to its different levels: the cell, the cell organization in the tissue, the tissue integration in the organs, the anatomical organization of the macroscopic organs, apparatuses and systems.
At the end of the course the student should know and be able to recognize the light microscope, the cell structure and the structure of human tissues. It must also know the morphology of the organ system of man.
At the end of the course the student will be able to solve simple "case studies".
At the end of the course the student will speak with technical language appropriately.
At the end of the course the student will be able to summarize a short text anatomical.
The course has the aim to allow the student the knowledge and comprehension of structural cytology of human body organs and topography in apparatus with specific function. This learning comes with cytological, histological and molecular biology knowledge and allows to understand physiological and pathological data.
Course contents summary
Cell and its components: the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nucleus.
Tissue formation and organization. Epithelial tissue: classification, localization and morpho-functional correlations. Connective tissue: classification, localization and morpho-functional correlations; ossification; hematopoiesis; blood cells and platelets. Muscle tissue: classification, localization and morpho-functional correlations. Nervous tissue: classification and localization of cell types.
Methods for histological preparations and the main histological stains. Tissues analysis with optical microscope.
Locomotor apparatus: structural organization (cytological and molecular) of bone, cartilage and muscle. Bones, joints and major muscle groups. Bones of the head, trunk and limbs. Macroscopic functional anatomy of joint of the spine, scapoloomerale, elbow, wrist, hip joint, knee and ankle.
Cardiovascular system: cellular and molecular organization of the endothelium. Anatomy macroscopic and microscopic of the heart, coronary vessels, heart valves. Structure of the wall of the arteries, veins and capillaries. Course of the main arteries and veins.
Functional anatomy of the blood-forming organs primary (bone marrow) and primary lymphoid (thymus) and secondary (spleen and lymph nodes).
Digestive system: general organization: the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Liver and bile ducts. The pancreas and pancreatic tract. The peritoneum.
Respiratory system: general organization: the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
Urinary system: gross anatomy and microscopic-functional kidney. Molecular anatomy of the nephron.
Endocrine system: general organization. The hypothalamus and the neurosecretory nuclei, pituitary. Thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal glands, the pancreatic islets.
Central and peripheral nervous system: general organization.
The topics of the lessons are morphologic aspects of human body divided in different apparati and systems:scheleton and muscle apparatus, cardiovascular apparatus, digestive system, respiratory system, uro-genytal system, endocrine system, linphatic, immunitary system and central and peripherical nervous system.
Cardiovascular system:blood vessels structure;thoracic cavity;mediastinum;general cardiac organization;cardiac size,shape and external features;cardiac chambers and internal features;architecture of the myocardium;pulmonary trunk;aorta system;superior and inferior vena cava systems.Lymphoid cells and tissue.Respiratory system:structural and microstructural features of the upper and lower respiratory tract (Larynx,Trachea and Bronchi,Lungs,Pleurae). Alimentary system:general features of oral cavity, pharynx,oesophagus,stomach,small intestine,large intestine;abdominal regions;peritoneum;microstructure of gut wall;structure and microstructure of salivary glands,liver and pancreas.Urinary systems:general features of kidney,ureteres,urinary bladder;renal microstructure.Reproductive system:reproductive organs of the male:general features of testis and epididymes;microstructure of the testis;reproductive organs of the females:general features of ovaries,uterine tubes and uterus;microstructures of ovary and uterus. Nervous system:cytology of the nervous system.Regional organization of the cerebral nervous system:Spinal medulla or cord,Medulla oblongata,Pons,Cerebellum,Mesencephalon,Diencephalon, Telencephalon (paleo,archi,neocortex,basal nuclei),Cranial nerves,Cervical,Brachial,Lumbar,Sacral Plexus,General organization of autonomic nervous system.
F.H. Martini, Anatomia Umana EdiSES (http://www.edises.it)
Marinozzi G. - Anatomia Clinica 2° ed. (Antonio Delfino Editore)
Anatomia dell'Uomo 2° ed. (Ambrosi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes
Stevens A. – Lowe J., Istologia Umana. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
LECTURES AND LABORATORY MICROSCOPIC
The course is developed by frontal lessons with the help of a large amount of images. Morever, pratical lessons on anatomical plastics and with optical microscopy.
Assessment methods and criteria
The ability of learning, presentation and correlation of various human body apparati is tested on oral examination. Student ability on presenting topics and general arguments with appropriate language is taken into consideration. In order to develop these features, few meeting on specific topics are scheduled.