# PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course gives, with a simplified approach, some basic concepts which are necessary to some of the following biology and chemistry courses. In particular, the contents of the present course offer a physical description of the mechanisms underlying many processes relevant for chemistry and biology

Knowledge and understanding

The student should prove to know and understand some of the most important aspects of classical physics, and of the physical laws controlling them.

Applying knowledge and understanding

The student should be able to understand similarities and differences between physical systems, and to comprehend physical laws. The student should be able to comprehend the essential aspects of physical laws, perform independently simple exercises, analyze the data and summarize the problems in their essential aspects.

Making judgements

Students, at the end of the course, will have to demonstrate that they have improved their critical thinking skills and judgment capability in particular to interpret data, elaborate on natural phenomena, communicate ideas-problems-solutions in order to develop the learning skills that are necessary to undertake further studies in biophysics or carry out professional activities related to it.

Learning skills

Students, at the end of the course, will have to demonstrate that they have started a path of understanding of the main classical physical issues, identification of the physical laws behind natural phenomena, comprehension of the most recent research results and translation into professional actions, that should be considered as self-study.

## Course contents summary

Mechanics Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Space-time diagram. Position, velocity, acceleration. Newton’s laws. Fundamental interactions. Work. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy. Conservation of energy. Equilibrium. Rotary motion. Kinetic energy of a rotating body. Torque. Fluid mechanics Stevino’s law. Archimede’s law. Continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flow. Stoke’s law. Surface tension. Capillaries and Laplace law. Thermodynamics Temperature scales. Kinetic theory of gases. Equipartition of energy. Internal energy. Specific heat. Latent heat and phase transitions. Work and heat. First law of thermodynamics. Some selected transformations. Heat propagation. Heat engines. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot’s cycle. Electromagnetism Electric charge. Insulators and conductors. Induction and polarization. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Voltage. Capacity. Capacitors and resistors. Ohm’s and Joule’s laws. Magnetic field. Lorentz force. Ampère’s law. Faraday’s law. Generalized Ampère’s law. Electromagnetic waves. Energy associated with the electromagnetic waves. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Polarization. Light refraction. Light dispersion.

## Course contents

Mechanics Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Space-time diagram. Position, velocity, acceleration. Newton’s laws. Fundamental interactions. Work. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy. Conservation of energy. Equilibrium. Rotary motion. Kinetic energy of a rotating body. Torque. Fluid mechanics Stevino’s law. Archimede’s law. Continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flow. Stoke’s law. Surface tension. Capillaries and Laplace law. Thermodynamics Temperature scales. Kinetic theory of gases. Equipartition of energy. Internal energy. Specific heat. Latent heat and phase transitions. Work and heat. First law of thermodynamics. Some selected transformations. Heat propagation. Heat engines. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot’s cycle. Electromagnetism Electric charge. Insulators and conductors. Induction and polarization. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Voltage. Capacity. Capacitors and resistors. Ohm’s and Joule’s laws. Magnetic field. Lorentz force. Ampère’s law. Faraday’s law. Generalized Ampère’s law. Electromagnetic waves. Energy associated with the electromagnetic waves. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Polarization. Light refraction. Light dispersion.

## Recommended readings

Principi di Fisica vol I Serway Jewett EdiSES

Fondamenti di Fisica J.S. Walker Pearson Addison- Wesley

## Teaching methods

Oral lessons

## Assessment methods and criteria

Written exam