INDUSTRIAL AND PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge of: Microorganisms structure, physiology, genetic and metabolism , Microbial growth, survival and metabolites production DNA, RNA and protein expression. Genetic modification of prokaryote and eukaryote cells Intrinsic and extrinsic enviromental factors affecting microbial growth and phenotype expression Potential industrial use of OGM Fermentation Industrial fermentation processes The fermenter use Batch; Fed-batch, continuous fermenter Up stream and down stream Monod equation Biomass and primary or secondary metabolite production Scaling up of biotechnological industrial process
The course is aimed to give a critical insight about the potential of predictive microbiology applied to food systems and food industry. The possible applications (i.e. formulation of innovative products, shelf life determination, evaluation of safety, HACCP, risk analysis, etc.) will be discussed. The most important statistical and mathematical instruments available will be analyzed in relation to the interpretation of resultsand their significance
The different sections in which the course is subdivided will be structured in theorical lessons and practical examples regarding food fermentations and food microbiology. In particular, case studies will be proposed inherent to microbial growth under different conditions, death kinetics following sanitizing treatments (thermal and not thermal), shelf life evaluation of foods and growth of pathogenic bacteria or toxin production.
Basic Microbiology knowledge statistics and mathematics
Course contents summary
First part - Industrial microbiology
Microorganisms: structure, physiology, genetic and metabolism. Microbial growth, survival and metabolites production . DNA, RNA and protein expression. Genetic modification of prokaryote and eukaryote cells Intrinsic and extrinsic enviromental factors affecting microbial growth and phenotype expression. Potential industrial use of OGM. Fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes. The fermenter use. Batch; Fed-batch, continuous fermenter . Up stream and down stream . Monod equation . Biomass and primary or secondary metabolite production . Scaling up of biotechnological industrial process
Second part - predictive microbiology
The lessons will be focused on the fundamental application of predictive microbiology. The main topics will be the following: - Aim, purposes and use of predictive microbiology; - Primary models: microbial dynamics in the ration to the application of specific factors:Growth models: logistic function, Gompertzequation and Baranyi model: Death models: linear model, inverse (mirror) logistic and Gompertz models, Weibull model and models for thermal death kinetics at not constant temperature - Secundary models: Ratkowski models, experimental designs, polynomial equations. Theoretical aspects and practical examples. Use of themodels obtained through predictive microbiology. Validation and significance - Tertiary models: use of the most important and diffused software in the field of predictive microbiology(ComBase, PMP, etc.) - Probabilistic models: Logit function and log linear models applied to food microbiology. Use of the models with predictive purposes. Validation and significance. - Future needs and perspectives: Use of classification techniques to exploit genetic data.
Fausto Gardini, Eugenio Parente. Manuale di microbiologia predittiva. Concetti e strumenti per l'ecologia microbica quantitativa. Springer Italia.
PRICIPLES OF FERMENTATIO TECHNOLOGY; Stanbury and Whitaker - Pergamo Press (1984). BIOTECNOLOGIE MICROBICHE; Donadio and Marino - Ambrosiana (2008)-
Materials and information provided during the lessons
oral lesson and and discussion of "study cases"
The theoretical topics of the course are explained by means of lectures.
Basis and applications of industrial and predictive microbiology will be dicussed during lessons. The study, elaboration and discussion of specific "study cases (exercises and business cases)" are proposed on the practical parts of the course and could permit to verify the student comprehention and elaboration capacity
Assessment methods and criteria
Specific lessons aimed to assessing the state of learning will be carried out at the end of each part of the course. During the course, some lessons will be devoted to student presentation and discussion of "study cases (business cases are discussed as examples of the main theoretical arguments of the course)" useful to understand and verify the state of comprehension and the elaboration capacity reached concerning industrial and predictive microbiology application fields.
Final examination will be carried out by a written test, either in form of multiple choices or open questions. The final evaluation will depend on the percentage of correct answers.
Result obtained in the two different examinations will be combined at 50% to obtain the the final evaluation value.