DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF ENERGY SYSTEMS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will acquire
(i) basic knowledge for the study of the dynamic behavior of energy processes and machines and their control
(ii) tools for dynamic simulation of complex systems
(iii) modeling capabilities of components of systems of different nature, type and configuration. The student will be able to assess the complexity of the model and he will be able to make the appropriate simplification in order to obtain results of adequate accuracy also in relation to that of the available measures for calibration, validation and comparison.
(iv) ability to apply basic knowledge and learned methods for the study of more complex energy systems and more advanced control techniques.
Course contents summary
Introduction to the course. Overview on dynamic modeling and an application to gas turbines.
Introduction to automatic control.
The control strategies. The design of a control system and its requirements.
The dependence of the corrective action to the error (example of steam turbine control).
The level control in a tank: an exercise with Scilab.
Oriented systems. The transfer matrix of dynamic linear time-invariant systems.
Recall of energy systems based on steam-cycle and gas turbines. Cogeneration. Input/output analysis of the boiler.
Input/output analysis of the steam turbine and of the gas turbine. The modulating control and logical/sequential control.
The governor of the steam power plant.
The local control of the boiler and of the turbine in a steam power plant.
The mechanical governor of the gas turbine.
The electronic governor of the gas turbine.
The start up of the gas turbine.
The shutdown of the gas turbine.
Start-up and shutdown of steam power plants.
The control architectures for energy conversion systems: Direct Digital Control and Distributed Control System.
The definition of optimal strategies for the management of an energy system. Example of linear programming applied to a CHP steam power plant.
The mathematical modeling process and its phases.
Classification of models. The role of models in the development of a new product/process.
The state space representation.
Procedure for the development of models in the state space representation.
Analogies between mechanical, electrical, thermal and fluid dynamics domains.
Example of the development of a dynamic model of a calorimeter. Implementation in Matlab, Scilab and OpenModelica.
Introduction to the representation by means of bond graph.
The energy bond and the control bond. The components: source, storage, sink, 0 and 1 junctions, transformer and gyrator.
The concept of causality. Example of a bond graph representation of a ICE test bench.
The linearization of state space models.
Parametric identification of state space models.
The development of a model for the simulation of a gas turbine and its linearization.
Introduction to diagnostic.
Uncertainty analysis of measurements and model results. The validation uncertainty.
Bacchelli, Danielli, Sandrolini, "Dinamica e controllo delle macchine a fluido", Pitagora Editrice
Doebelin, “System Dynamics – Modeling, Analysis, Simulation, Design”, Marcel Dekker Inc.
Brown, “Engineering system dynamics – A Unified Graph-Centered Approach”, Taylor and Francis, 2nd Edition
Ordis et al, "Modelling and simulation of power generation plants", Springer-Verlag
Bruni, Ferrone, "Metodi di stima per il filtraggio e l'identificazione dei sistemi", Aracne Editrice
Kulikov et al, "Dynamic Modelling of Gas Turbines", Springer
Coleman, Steele, "Experimentation, Validation, and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers", John Wiley & Sons
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral exam consisting in the discussion of a group project and in some questions about the course content. The project is the development of a model of a fluid or thermodynamic system and its implementation in two computing environments to choose from Matlab, Scilab and OpenModelica.