DAMS AND WEIRS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course presents the basic knowledge about water diversions with
and without flow regulation. The main types of dams are rewieved,
according to the Italian Regolamento Dighe. Weirs and floodgates are
presented. Some basic information is given about fluvial and coastal
structures concerning inland and marine navigation.
Knowledge and understanding:
By the end of the course, students should be able to choose flow
regulation opportunities with their adequate barrage types, according to
aims of the reservoir, hydrology of the watercourse and geomorphology
of the valley. Students should also be able to evaluate structures
necessary for harbour protection from sea waves.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
Students should be able to directly develop static and hydraulic feasibility
design of those types of dams and weirs (including maritime works)
amenable to elementary computational frameworks.
Mainly through numerical exercises and their technical reports, students
should increase their ability to efficiently convey their own technical
ideas and findings about the project. The logical and mathematical
pathway between data and results should clearly be stated through the
use and development of graphical, numerical and verbal communication tools .Different levels of readers should be learned how to be addressed, from
institutional customers to technical users.
Learning ability: The completion of the course should provide students not only with an increase of specific hydraulic infrastructure knowledge, but also with thegrasp of the interdisciplinary nature of most of its subjects, compelling the engineer to deal, within the same project activity, with different
disciplines. Fostering both interdisciplinary dialogue and interprofessional
interaction should be an outcome of the course.
A good grasp of the following topics is recommended:
- hydrostatics and open channel hydraulics
- structure science
Some knowledge of geology and structure technique is also suggested.
Some skill in using PC tools such as Excel and Word is recommended.
Course contents summary
Introductory notes. General purpose of hydraulic structures. Water
resource concept, resource/demand ratio. Water uses examined in the
c o u r s e :
A) Municipal water supply,
B) Agricultural supply,
C) Industrial (hydropower generation),
D) Transport and Navigation.
A-B) Municipal and Agricultural water supply : 1) Dams and Reservoirs, 2)
Diversions and Offtakes, 3) Interceptions
1) Dams and Reservoirs: Regolamento Dighe, stresses over retenrion
structures, design criteria, building, management and maintenance of
dams. Gravity dams, arch dams, other concrete type dams. Earth dams,
2) Diversions and offtakes: fixed weirs, movable floodgates,. Piping and
heaving, saturated-unsaturated flow in porous media (analytical and
empirical solutions). Levees, desilting basins, outlets.
3) Interceptions: spring interception, groundwater withdrawal.
C) Industrial use : hydropower generation : short outline
D) Transport and Navigation
1) Inland navigation : features of inland transport, international treaties
on inland navigation. Natural waterways: canalization and regularization
of waterways, Fargues laws. Man-made waterways: design criteria and
linkage to the natural network. Subsidiary works: locks, canal-bridges,
2) Sea Navigation
Short account on winds, waves, currents, tides. Phenomena of wave
motion: breaking, shoaling, rifraction, diffraction, reflection. Ports: piers,
DATEI C.: " Introduzione allo studio delle dighe ; sbarramenti in muratura
", Ed. Cortina, Padova
EVANGELISTI G.: " Impianti Idroelettrici ",(1° vol.), Ed. Patron, Bologna
FERRO G: " Costruzioni Marittime ",(2 voll.), Ed. CEDAM, Padova
The theoretical part of the course will be dealt with through frontal
lectures, with the support of slides and videos projection.
Four numerical exercises will be introduced :
- stress analysis of a gravity dam
- stress analysis of an arch dam
- river flow regulation analysis through a multi-purpose reservoir
- statistical analysis of river diversion without flow regulation
At least two exercises should be completed autonomously by each
student and produced on paper or magnetic support, in order to be
admitted to the final oral examination.
Assessment methods and criteria
In order to take the final examination in oral form, at least two of the four
numerical exercises must be produced in advance, on paper or
magnetical support, including graphs, numerical tables and technical
description. The evaluation splits into two parts: 90% goes to the oral
examination and 10% to the numerical exercises.
Lecture attendance is recommended