LABORATORY ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SPORTS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The integrated course of “Laboratory Analysis applied to Sport” aims to provide the student with essential knowledge about specific topics of Clinical Biochemistry, Applied Histopathology, General Pathology, Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, Dermatology.
Furthermore, it will supply the ability of using the acquired knowledge and understanding as useful tools for a conscious approach to the diseases characteristic of each course.
In particular the course aims to provide the knowledge about:
The dosage of biochemical and clinical parameters in the blood and in the urine useful to control the health of amateur and professional athletes;
comprehension and interpretation of the data obtained in the laboratory of chemical-clinical analysis, and particular attention will be on possible alterations of the metabolism caused by the physical activity and their consequences.
Furthermore the students will practise the strategies applied for the laboratory analysis that are aimed at contrasting the use of prohibited expedients or substances: direct identification, recognition of induced biochemical or metabolic alterations and their identification also outside the laboratory.
The nomenclature, etiology, physio-pathology and anatomical bases of diseases that have a specific relevance in the professional and recreational practice of sports. These include cerebro-spinal trauma, sudden cardiac death of the athlete and neuro-muscular pathology;
prevention, diagnosis and counseling of these disorders;
the basic physio-pathology of cerebral trauma including hemorrhage, edema, brain hypertension, herniation and ischemia;
the causes, the pathological bases and the clinical features of the main traumatic injuries of brain and spinal cord;
the etiology, risk factors, pathological manifestations, early symptoms and strategies of prevention of sudden cardiac death of the athlete;
the causes, the pathology and the laboratory and clinical features of the most common hereditary and acquired diseases of the skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve;
the differences between myopathies and muscle denervation injuries and their differential diagnosis;
the role of muscle and peripheral nerve biopsy in the management of neuro-muscular disorders;
strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death in the athlete and in the identification of subjects at risk;
identification and immediate management of spinal and brain trauma injuries;
prevention of traumatic brain and spinal injuries in sports;
screening of subjects with potential neuro-muscular disorders.
Overexercise pathologies and exercise in the diabetic patient; the role of laboratory in these conditions.
MICROBIOLOGY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE
General characters of microorganisms and viruses causative agents of infectious diseases. Host defenses against infections. Principles and methods of laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
There are no obligatory prerequisites for the integrated course of “Laboratory Analysis applied to Sport” but it would be advantageous for the students to have sufficient notions of biology, anatomy, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, general pathology and general microbiology.
Course contents summary
The integrated course of “Laboratory Analysis applied to Sport” is composed by some courses (Clinical Biochemistry, Applied Histopathology, General Pathology, Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, Applied Dermatology) regarding the different laboratory techniques, the main diseases and the way of intervention in the fields of sports and sport medicine.
For each course are recommended specific books:
- Kellerman G. “Valori anormali di laboratorio”. Mc Graw Hill
- S.D.Ferrara. “Doping Antidoping” –Piccin
Robbins & Cotran, Pathologic basis of diseases, Elsevier, 8° Ed. (specific chapters).
Rubin, Pathology, Mosby 2006 (specific chapters).
Maier “Elementi di Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia”, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2 edizione.
MICROBIOLOGY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia Con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli
"Dermatologia Pediatrica" (autore: G. Fabrizi).
" Nevi e melanomi nel bambino" (autori: G. Fabrizi, G. Massi).
"Dermatologia Manuale pratico di consultazione" (autori: R. Graham-Brown, T. Burns).
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the contents of the courses. Moreover, for the course of clinical Biochemistry, professional situations relating to different kind of activity (gym, sport society, professional athletes, schools) will be simulated.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the courses content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding to a conscious approach to theoretical and practical situations in occupational contexts.
Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge
on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, the final grade will be decided jointly by the examiners, according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient).
Honours will be reserved to students demonstrating particular communication skills and independent learning ability, together with an overall excellent evaluation.