IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Inflammatory processes and immune system are introduced as basic response to injuries. Basis to comprehend the organization, function and regulatory mechanisms of body defences, so important to maintain body health, will be provided. Examples will demonstrate the essential importance of antigen recognition mechanisms for body protection. Basis for comprehension of immune system iperergic reactions, when regulatory mechanisms fail, will be provided. The principals autoimmunitary mechanisms will be presented. The student will attend practical lessons in cytology in order to be able to recognize normal and activated cells of the immune system.
Course contents summary
The mechanisms through which the body defends itself from pathogens that cause disease will be explained, starting from the physical barriers that exclude microorganisms, till the innate immunity that produces a prolonged protective effect.
Antibody-mediated immunity protects against extracellular microorganisms, while cell-mediated immunity protects the organism from intracellular organisms.
The immunopathology section will include the immunological reactions that produce damage to the body: the different types of hypersensitivity; self-immunity, in which the body triggers harmful mechanisms against itself.
The causes and consequences of the pathologies that cause immunodepression will also be considered.
The immune system (cells, primary and secondary lymphoid organs), lymphocytes recirculation
Acute inflammation: definition, aetiology, vascular and cellular changes, inflammatory cells and chemokynes, results and consequences.
Chronic inflammation, primary and granulomatous: cellular aspects and mediators, systemic effects
Innate and acquired immunity
Antigens: structure and functions. Antigen-antibody link. Monoclonal antibodies.
B lynphocytes receptor and T lymphocytes receptor: Lymphocytes repertoire formation and clonal selection.
MHC I and II classes: structure and functions. Oesogenous and endogenous antigen processing. Antigen presenting cells and organs transplantation.
Lymphocytes activation. Primary and secondary response. Immunological memory.
Laboratory methods based on antigen-antibody reactions and adaptative immunity cells.
Immunopathology principles: hypersensitivities (I, II, III, IV). Tolerance and autoimmunity and pathogenetic mechanisms. Immunodeficiecies and immunodepression. Stress and immune system.
Veterinary Immunology, Tizard I.R., Elsevier 9°edizione (2013)
Pier G., Lyczak J.B., Wetzler L.M., Immunologia Infezione, Immunità, (2006) Piccin
Murphy K, Travers P., Walport M, Janeway's Immunobiologia, (2009) Saunders
McGavin M.D., Zachary J.F., Patologia Generale Veterinaria, (2008) Elsevier
Robbins e Cotran-le basi patologiche delle malattie vol 1 (2010) Elsevier
theoretical lessons with slides presentation (38 hours). 4 hours of practical observation of cytology of the cells involved in the immune response.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam ca be made orally or written on student’s choice. An open question, concerning each of the 4 subjects explained in the lessons will be posed. Each correct answer is up to 7.5 points. Knowledge emerges because the student have to be able to describe immunity mechanisms and associate them with immune pathologies. Communication skills are verified orally or by the quality of the essay and compliance with requisites. Self-judgements is manifested in the comprehension of the subject and in the skill to associate it to the different immonpathological situations. The exam is taken in about 2 hours