Knowledge: the aim of the course is to introduce the student to the basic knowledge of the crystalline solids, ranging from the symmetry of their periodic structures to the thermodynamics and kinetics of their formation and reactivity, from the radiation-matter interaction that originates the scattering process, to the most common diffraction techniques at the basis of their characterization. Moreover, the chemical reactivity of solids is widely treated, ranging from solid state reactions to SolGel processes, from preparation of nanoparticles or thin films to surface functionalization. The laboratory offer to the student the opportunity to plane different experiments from the point of view of the researcher, going well beyond the simple replica of a given phenomenon.
Knowledge and applied comprehension: the course supplies the instruments to predict and to interpretate the behavior of solids as a function of the surrounding conditions and to characterize the solid state on the basis of the structural properties, giving the basis for the preparation of materials for device fabrication.
Learning ability: the course supplies the methodological instruments and the basic language of chemistry, allowing to deal with specific basic and advanced texts.
Communication ability: the student acquires the technical language that is necessary to communicate correctly complex arguments and to discuss with specialists.
Independent judgment: the student is stimulated to recognize connections among the treated arguments in order to develop an independent judgment ability based on the acquired skills.
Course contents summary
The crystal state. Origin of 3D-periodicity. Crystallization. Nucleation and growth. Amorphous materials and glasses. Bravais lattice and crystal lattice. Symmetry classification. Point symmetry and space groups of crystal
X-rays. Scattering process: Thompson and Compton. Atomic scattering factor. Scattering from ordered systems: the diffraction process. Bragg's law and Laue's equations. Reciprocal lattice. Ewald sphere. Structure factor and equation of the electron density. The phase problem in crystallography and its possible solution.
Practical aspects of X-ray diffraction. Single crystal and powder diffraction. Crystallographic databases.
Classification of crystal structures. Close packing and eutactic models. Principal types of binary and ternary structures. Polymorphism and phase transitions. Kinetic and thermodynamic classification of phase transitions. Continuous transitions. Crystallographic trends in phase transitions
Solid solution. Interstitial and substitutional solutions. Etherovalent substitutions and charge compensation mechanisms.
Reactivity of solids. Solid state reactions: principles and mechanisms. Experimental aspects. Sintering. Ceramic materials and their applications.
Laboratory experiments on basic concepts and applications of inorganic chemistry:
Chemistry of the SolGel process: preparation of siliceous xerogel, preparation of hybrid organic-inorganic xerogels and their use for the purification of solutions of metals.
Preparation and stabilization of metal nanoparticles and oxides. Use of water-soluble organic polymers for the separation of nanoparticles from solution.
Preparation of colored films based on metal oxides.
Preparation of conducting glass based on tin oxide.
Functionalization of a surface of silver with an organic monomolecular layer.
Ferrofluids based on magnetite. Formation of electrochromic films based on iron cyanometalates.
Construction of a photovoltaic DSSC cell.
Solid state chemistry and its applications
John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester
Lectures and individual laboratory experiments.
Assessment methods and criteria
Correction of a manuscript on laboratory experiments and oral examination